DISABILITY AWARENESS - Iowa Department of Education
Iowa Department for the Blind (IDB) & Iowa Vocational Rehabilitation Services (IVRS) What is Okay to Say General Tips and Education Americans with Disabilities Act Reasonable Accommodations Examples and Strategies Assistive Technology Resources Available 56.7 million people 1 in 5 people
19% of the population 450,000 in Iowa with disabilities 69,000 in Iowa with vision impairments Source http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p70-131.pdf Visible Invisible People who are paralyzed and need some type of aid to move around People with hearing disorders
Severe developmental disability Speech impediments may not be immediately apparent A physical difference People who are blind can appear to be sighted, if you do not notice the aid they require to move around Missing limbs A learning disability may be
misinterpreted as lack of intelligence or carelessness Motor impairments ADHD can be misinterpreted as lazy or apathetic
Michael Jordan- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Stevie Wonder- Retinopathy of Prematurity/Blind Ray Charles
Albert Einstein- Autism Tom Cruise- Dyslexia Charles Schwab- Dyslexia Ludwig Van Beethoven- Deaf Ellen DeGeneres- Depression Leonardo DiCaprio- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Sir Isaac Newton- Epilepsy Jim Carrey- Depression J.K. Rowling- Depression Brad Pitt- Depression Billy Joel- Depression Demi Lovato- Bipolar Disorder Adam Levine- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Elton John- Bulimia Angelina Jolie- Depression John Hamm- Depression David Beckham- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Franklin Delano Roosevelt- Vision Impairment Handicapped Crippled, lame Person with a
disability Person with a physical disability Person who is blind Person who is hard of hearing
Person who communicates differently Person with a psychiatric disability The blind Suffers from hearing loss Mute
Nuts, crazy Dont Say Say Misconceptions Unfortunately, and inaccurately, people with disabilities are often viewed as:
Victims, or objects of pity Burdens, either on society or on families and careers Threat to comfort and safety of others Assumed to be unable to do things Having multiple disabilities Childlike, Special, or Hero Reasons why disability is fearful
Safety threat Ambiguity, Salience, and Spread/Overgeneralization Moral accountability for the cause and management of disability Inferred emotional consequences of disability Fear of acquiring disability Factors that contribute to attitudes Environment in which you interact with the individual Type of disability Your cultural background Inferiority: The individual is seen as a second-class citizen. Pity: People feel sorry for the person and are patronizing.
Hero Worship: People consider a person with a disability living independently to be special. Ignorance: The individual is dismissed as incapable due to their disability. The Spread Effect: People assume that the individuals disability affects other senses. Stereotypes: People make both positive and negative generalizations about disabilities. Backlash: People believe the individual is being given an unfair advantage because of their disability. Denial: People may not believe that hidden disabilities are legitimate and therefore do not need accommodations. Fear: People are afraid they will offend a person with a disability by doing or saying the wrong thing and avoid the person as a result. Openness and willingness to understand
your biases, culture, and assumptions Education, Information, and Training Exposure to individuals with disabilities Understand that learning can only come with interaction with individuals with disabilities Ask before helping Be sensitive about physical contact Speak directly to the person Try not to make assumptions Learn from the person Warmly respond to requests Be open to learning
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), PL101-336 states, "No covered entity shall discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability because of the disability of such individual in regard to job application procedures; the hiring, advancement, or discharge of employees; employee compensation; job training; and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment." The ADA defines a person with a disability as a person who has an impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity. Types of Disabilities:
Physical Cognitive Psychiatric Sensory Applies to employers who have 15 or more employees, including:
Private employers State and local governments Employment agencies Labor Unions Protects qualified individuals with disabilities from discrimination Allows individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to work Applies to those applying for a position,
interviewing for a position, and working in the position According to the Department of Justice government-wide regulations, section 41.53, Reasonable Accommodation: "A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the recipient can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of it program."
A modification or adjustment to a job, the work environment, or the way things usually are done that enables a qualified individual with a disability to enjoy an equal employment opportunity. An equal employment opportunity means an opportunity to attain the same level of performance or to enjoy equal benefits and privileges of employment as are available to an average similarly-situated employee without a disability. Most accommodations are under $500 and easy to implement The ADA requires reasonable accommodation in three aspects of employment:
1) to ensure equal opportunity in the application process, 2) to enable a qualified individual with a disability to perform the essential functions of a job, and 3) to enable an employee with a disability to enjoy equal benefits and privileges of employment. Examples of reasonable accommodations:
Making existing facilities accessible Job restructuring Part-time or modified work schedules Acquiring or modifying equipment Changing tests/assessments, training materials, or policies Providing qualified readers or interpreters Reassignment to a vacant position. For additional information about reasonable accommodation under the ADA, visit Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship (EEOC Guidance): http ://www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/accommodation.html
Searchable Online Reasonable Accommodations (SOAR): http://askjan.org/soar/index.htm The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Federal agency that regulates and enforces other employment discrimination laws, and is responsible for enforcing ADA employment provisions. As with all areas of life education is the key to helping people understand each other.
Equal treatment is essential to the integration of individuals with disabilities into the workplace. In order to maintain an inclusive work environment all coworkers need to be treated with the respect they deserve.
Place yourself at the same communication levels if your conversation lasts more then a few minutes Do not lean on their wheelchair, assistive device or ask to hold items (coat, umbrella, etc.) Do not push or touch their wheelchair Keep ramps and wheelchair accessible doors unlocked and unblocked Do not grab the arm of someone using cane or crutches Ensure office materials are within the wheelchair users reach Dexterity/Mobility Disabilities: Alternative keyboards & pointing
devices Keyboard enhancement systems Speech recognition software and training Ergonomic chairs Back rests and foot rests
Gain the person's attention before starting a conversation (i.e., tap the person gently on the shoulder or arm). Speak clearly, at a normal tone and pace. Look directly at the individual, face the light, speak clearly in a normal tone of voice, and keep your hands away from your face. Use short, simple sentences. Avoid smoking or chewing gum. If repetition is needed, use different words, When using an interpreter, speak directly to the person and not to the interpreter, Offer alternative means of communication when an interpreter is not present (i.e.
texting, TTY, UbiDuo, written notes) or ask the individual what method he or she would prefer, If you call an individual who is hard of hearing, let the phone ring longer than usual. Speak clearly and be prepared to repeat the reason for the call and who you are. If you do not have a Text Telephone (TTY), dial 711 to reach the national telecommunications relay service, which can facilitate a call between you and an individual who uses a TTY, Utilize a sign language interpreter or write things down. Do no obstruct vie w of mouth when speaking. Always make eye contact with the person you are speaking to. Recognize the use of assistive listening devices. (Source: http://askearn.org/refdesk/Inclusive_Workplaces/Etiquette) . Deaf/Hard of Hearing Disabilities: Interpreting services
Put instructions and important information in writing if the person has auditory and/or short term memory difficulties Use hands on training Break down complicated tasks into line items with check boxes
Supply notebooks, file cabinet and other organizing and note taking aids Provide a quiet work environment Text to speech software if needed Remember that the individual has normal or above normal intelligence Offer to be in a quiet or private location Give verbal explanations Speak clearly Allow adequate time for actions (reading, writing, speaking) Ask if they need clarification or have questions Be patient, flexible and supportive If the person who you are working with is having trouble understanding you, repeat yourself, using different words, without getting frustrated. Break up your ideas into small manageable bits that can be easily remembered Keep it simple
Identify yourself when entering and leaving a room Provide a tour of a new facility (new employee) Describe setting, environment, and obstacles
Do not grab their arm to guide Do not pet or feed a guide dog Offer to read information Do not touch or grab, ask or offer assistance Extend your hand, announce it, if necessary At the end of a conversation, let the person know when you are walking away If you hold the door open for a person who is blind, tell them Be specific when giving directions When in doubt, just ask Braille Large Print Slate and Stylus Adhesion Dots Large Print/Talking Calculator
Large Print/Talking Ruler Braille/Talking Watch Talking Thermometer Cane Travel Utilizing Other Senses Screen Magnifiers- ZoomText Screen Readers- JAWS Closed Circuit TV(CCTV) & Video Magnifiers Refreshable Braille Displays Smart Phones- Voice Over and Apps knfbReader Color Inspector
Money Reader TapTapSee About 80% of individuals who are blind have some remaining vision. Service Provider/Employer Role: It may be difficult to understand how and individual with a certain eye condition can see some things while not seeing others. Ask the person to describe their vision loss and barriers in various environments. https://nei.nih.gov/health/examples#6
http://www.eyesiteonwellness.com/eyediseases/?utm_source=Member %2BNewsletter&utm_medium=Email&utm_cam paign=Q1%2B2016%2BMember %2BNewsletter&j=1395662&e=shannon.myers @blind.state.ia.us&l=46086_HTML&u=8372322 9&mid=6323686&jb=0 Do not finish sentences. Allow time to say everything. Do not mimic or mock speech. Never pretend to know what a person is saying. Ask the person to repeat or rephrase, or offer a pen and piece of paper.
Give the person your full attention Do not interrupt or finish sentences Ask for clarification if person is misunderstood Repeat for verification Ask the individual to write it down Move to a quieter environment Cognitive/Communication Disabilities Voice recognition software Word prediction software Screen reader software Cueing/memory aids Text based devices Communication devices
Assistive listening devices Why a simulation keeps people fearful Keep all walkways clear of debris. Make sure everything that is needed for work related task can be found easily. Work with people with disabilities to discover what needs to be done in your workplace. Create effective advocacy tools for accessibility in your workplace.
o o o o Do not refer to a persons disability unless it is relevant. Avoid asking personal questions about someone's disability. Let them mention their disability first. If you must ask, be sensitive and show respect. Avoid negative or sensational descriptions of a person's disability with anyone. Use people first language when addressing a person with a disability. i.e. It is better to say "person with a disability" rather than "a disabled
person." Relax Listen, let the person set the pace Offer assistance but do not insist Treat people as you would want to be treated with dignity, respect, and courtesy Remember that outdated perceptions lead to complaints Ask the person with the disability if you have a question about accommodations or communication INAPPROPRIATE: You are blind and do not have a drivers license. How will you get to work?
APPROPRIATE: Do you have transportation to work? Preparing for disasters is a task that should NOT be postponed. Accommodations for people with disabilities must be part of any disaster plan and be clearly posted.
It is imperative to include disability planning as part of disaster planning, and how to consider the needs of all employees, as well as the needs of the business, in recovering from disasters, both natural and man made. Accommodations should be made on the job and with social aspects of a job. Make sure individuals with disabilities have access to social events that occur during the work day. Do not assume an individual with a disability does not want to participate in a social event or happenings after hours due to their disability. It is okay to recognize you are learning how
to interact with someone. Use Person-First Language When introduced to a person with a disability, offer to shake hands. If you offer assistance, wait until offer is accepted. Then list or ask for instructions. Speak in a normal tone of voice. Speak directly to the individual. Do not make assumptions. When in doubt, just ask! If
you encounter an individual with a service animal, such as a dog, please do not touch or distract the animal. Service animals are working, and it breaks their training to interact with others when they are on duty. When the animal is not working, some owners may allow interaction. If you are having a conversation with a person who uses a wheelchair, if at all possible put yourself at the person's eye level. Never lean on or touch a person's wheelchair or any other assistive device. A person's assistive device is part of their personal space, and it is jarring or disturbing for anyone to have his or personal space invaded. If you are speaking with an individual with a cognitive disability, you may need to repeat or rephrase what you say. If you are giving instructions on how to perform a task, you may also need to give the instructions in writing. Relax. Whether conducting an interview or day-to-day workplace communications, focus on the subject matter and not on disability related issues. Treat the individual with the same respect and courtesy
that you extend to all job candidates and employees. Any initial concerns will quickly disappear as you focus on effective communications . (Source: http://www.dol.gov/odep/pubs/fact/effectiveinteraction.htm) Iowa Department for the Blind (IDB) http://www.blind.state.ia.us/ Iowa Vocational Rehabilitation Services (IVRS) http:// www.ivrs.iowa.gov Job Accommodation Network (JAN) https://askjan.org/ Searchable Online Accommodation Resource (SOAR) https://askjan.org/soar/index.htm https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Gv1aDEFlXq8
Shannon Myers, M.S., Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, Employment Specialist Iowa Department for the Blind (IDB) [email protected] Mindy Collins, MAC, Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor Iowa Vocational Rehabilitation Services (IVRS) [email protected]
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