Construction Pre-Apprenticeship Programs: Results from a ...
Construction PreApprenticeship Programs: Results from a National Survey Working Poor Families Project Meeting Chicago, IL June 11, 2009 1 Survey Respondents 260 pre-apprenticeship programs responded From 40 states, DC and PR Most common org type among respondents was non-profit/CBO followed by comm/tech/trade college 80% of respondents reported working with partners (biz/union reps, schools, govt agencies and other non-profits) Wide range in age and size of programs responding 2 Who Were We Trying to Reach?
Anyone preparing/connecting individuals not currently working in construction to construction jobs Many respondents did not seem well connected to apprenticeship system Penetration rate of apprenticeship programs unknown (USDOL Office of Apprenticeship), but likely varies by market segment and geographically We use pre-apprenticeship as short-hand term, but not all respondents would describe themselves as pre-apprenticeship programs 3 Opportunities Targeted Programs connect individuals to a wide variety of occupations19+ occupations, carpenters, laborers, electricians most commonly mentioned by programs Target a range of market segments~70% target commercial and 50+% target residential;
less in industrial, heavy & hgwy, institutional Programs commonly report working with both union and non-union companies Relatively few programs seem to be connecting their participants to registered apprenticeships 4 Union, non-union, both Target of Placeme nt Efforts 27% Unions/union companies Merit shops/non-union companies Both union and non-union companies 63% 10% 5
Program Services Programs report providing a range of introductory information, training, support and placement services 88% of respondents reported providing training services--vocational components offered at a relatively high rate Support and placement services were offered at a much lower rate than training services Some indication that traditional workforce organizations more likely to provide supports than union, industry or education institutions 6 Who offers construction programs? Nonprofit/CBO, incl. faith-based Respondents by Organizational Type 2% 3%
2% 2% 2% 1% Technical, trades, comm college or univ WIB 4% Union 4% Joint apprentice training fund, council, or program State govt agency 6%
44% Industry association Local govt agency, incl. TANF, etc. 7% School district, K-12 school One-stop operator 7% Housing authority Other 18% Construction business, contractor, developer 7 Participants Served Respondents reported a wide range of program sizes -- with a median of 54 and average of 122
participants served Roughly half of respondents reported designing services for individuals who might face barriers in the industry About 3/4 indicate screening for ability level, but only 1/3 indicate requiring a H.S. degree or GED Other screens used include drug use, drivers license, legal status, reliable transportation, physical aptitude, criminal records history 8 Populations Served/Designed for Populations Served and Populations Targeted Low -income individuals Ethnic, racial minorities Women Adults w ith limited or no w ork history Ex-offenders Youth Dislocated w orkers
90% % Programs designing services for Pop. 9 100% Tailored Programs vs. Designed for a General Population Tailored offer more robust set of supports, although curriculum content areas similar Tailored less likely to connect to union or registered apprenticeship Tailored more likely to accept individuals with low skill levels Tailored more likely to report finance, industry, policy and operational challenges, for a variety of potential reasons 10 Targeted vs. Genl Pop Programs
Support Services Offered Work expenses, e.g., supplies, fees, testing, dues Tuition, training expenses Transportation Mentoring Mental health Legal assistance Housing Health insurance Drug testing Driver license obtainment/driving record remediation Child support arrears Child care Case management 0 10 20 30
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % programs reporting Programs Targeting Adults w / Ltd Work History Programs Serving Gen'l Pop 11 Green Program Elements
120 respondents answered a question asking about green program elements Most common activity included in answer was weatherization, cited by 42 respondents 21 respondents noted that they have curriculum in development Renewable energy: 21 solar; 6 wind; 1 geothermal Many noted green is a long-standing aspect of construction work -- from proper insulation to low-flow water to recycling building materials 12 Outcomes Reported Programs report reasonably high training completion rates Job placement is a challenge Placement in registered apprenticeship programs is low; some programs do not work with registered apprenticeship Data regarding outcomes is likely of
uneven quality across programs Post-program completion services are limited 13 Training Completion Trainee Outcomes Reported 60% % Programs reporting 50% 40% Training Complete Apprentice 30% Job Further Education
20% 10% 0% 20% or less 21 - 50% 51 - 70% 71 - 90% 90+% Proportion of trainees achieving outcome 14 Percentage of Grads Reached
Percentage of Program Graduates Reached 12% 6% Less than 25% 16% 12% 25%-50% 50%-75% 75-90% More than 90% Don't know 26% 25% 15
Budgets Respondents budgets ranged widely Public money was most commonly used and also most commonly mentioned as largest source of funding < 20% of respondents receive no public funds > 70% report no student funds; ~50% report no biz funds; nearly 60% report no philanthropic funds In-kind sources used by nearly half of respondents Consistent funding year to year and current funding environment cited as challenges 16 Funding Sources Funding Sources Used Public: State Public: Federal Other: In-kind services Public: Local Philanthropic: Local foundations Industry: Joint apprenticehsip programs
Industry: Contributions from employers Philanthropic: Individual contributions Students: Tuition/fee payments from 3rd party Students: Tuition/fee payments from students Industry: Corporate foundations Students: Federal student aid Philanthropic: National foundations Philanthropic: Regional foundations Industry: Fee-for-service revenue Industry: Business association funds 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
60% % respondents receiving funds from source 17 70% Conclusions Pre-apprenticeship programs widespreadgeographically, by market segment, occupationally Programs well-positioned and eager to train for green jobs Pre-apprenticeship programs serve populations that face barriers in construction, but access to supportive services uneven across programs Pre-apprenticeship challenged in connecting to industry, and even apprenticeship programs struggle in forecasting labor demand However, programs report there is demand
Picture of skill levels that vary widely, both upon entry, and likely upon exit Data on program length difficult to interpret Public sector major funder of programsand often major purchaser of services 18 Further Questions Can public sector help improve forecasting demandthrough LMI resources or through role as buyer/investor? Should pre-apprenticeship programs develop more standards? What would that look like in light of industry variability? What can we learn from high performers (e.g. those with high job placement and targeted?; those with high apprenticeship connection & supports?) So few connections to apprenticeship, and yet it
plays key skill development role for industry how can that aspect be strengthened? 19 For More Information Maureen Conway / Allison Gerber Workforce Strategies Initiative The Aspen Institute 202-736-5800 [email protected] www.aspenwsi.org 20
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