Chapter Two - Pearson Education

Chapter Two - Pearson Education

Chapter Fourteen. Writing and Assembling an APA-Format Research Report What is APA Format? APA Format What is APA Format? APA Format

Accepted American Psychological Association (APA) form for preparing reports of psychological research. What is APA Format? APA Format Accepted American Psychological Association (APA) form for preparing reports of psychological research. The particular form for preparing APA format papers is

found in the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001). What is APA Format? APA Format Accepted American Psychological Association (APA) form

for preparing reports of psychological research. The particular form for preparing APA format papers is found in the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001). APA format was adopted to help make the publication of journal articles more uniform. What is APA Format? APA Format

Accepted American Psychological Association (APA) form for preparing reports of psychological research. The particular form for preparing APA format papers is found in the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001). APA format was adopted to help make the publication of journal articles more uniform. In addition to being computer friendly, the general layout and design of the APA-format paper are reader friendly.

What is APA Format? Headings What is APA Format? Headings Titles for various sections of a psychology paper designed to help the reader understand the outline and importance of parts of the paper.

What is APA Format? Headings Titles for various sections of a psychology paper designed to help the reader understand the outline and importance of parts of the paper. Authors use headings to divide the APA-format paper into sections and to help the reader understand the papers organization.

What is APA Format? You should buy a Publication Manual (PM) and think of it as an investment in your future. Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in

order: 1. Title Page Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1.

2. Title Page Abstract Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1. 2. 3.

Title Page Abstract Introduction Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Section Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Section Results Section Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Section Results Section Discussion Section Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in

order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Method Section Results Section Discussion Section References Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Section Results Section Discussion Section References Appendixes (if any) Sections of the APAFormat Paper

The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Section Results Section Discussion Section References Appendixes (if any) Author note Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Method Section Results Section Discussion Section References Appendixes (if any) Author note Tables (if any) Sections of the APAFormat Paper The major components of an APA-format paper are, in order: 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Section

Results Section Discussion Section References Appendixes (if any) Author note Tables (if any) Figures (if any) Sections of the APAFormat Paper Title Page Sections of the APAFormat Paper Title Page

The first page of an APA-format paper. It includes the manuscript page header, the running head, the manuscripts title, and the name(s) of the author(s) and their affiliation(s). Sections of the APAFormat Paper Title Page

Manuscript page header Sections of the APAFormat Paper Title Page Manuscript page header The first two or three words of the reports title. Appears with the page number on each page of the research report. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Title Page Manuscript page header The first two or three words of the reports title. Appears with the page number on each page of the research report. Running head

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Title Page Manuscript page header Running head A condensed title that is printed at the top of alternate pages of a published article. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Title Page Manuscript page header Running head A condensed title that is printed at the top of alternate pages of a published article. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, including letters, punctuation, and spaces between words.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Title Page Manuscript page header Running head

A condensed title that is printed at the top of alternate pages of a published article. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, including letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. When you type the running head on the title page, it is in all-capital letters. Also, note that the h in running head is not capitalized. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract

The word Abstract is centered and appears two lines below the page number. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract The word Abstract is centered and appears two lines below the page number. A centered section title in which the first letters of major words are capitalized is designated as a level 1

heading. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract Level 1 heading Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract

Level 1 heading A centered section title in which the first letters of major words are capitalized. Occupies a line by itself. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract

The word Abstract is centered and appears two lines below the page number. A centered section title in which the first letters of major words are capitalized is designated as a level 1 heading. The abstract of an experimental report consists of a brief (up to 120 words) one paragraph description of the research presented in your paper. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract

The word Abstract is centered and appears two lines below the page number. A centered section title in which the first letters of major words are capitalized is designated as a level 1 heading. The abstract of an experimental report consists of a brief (up to 120 words) one paragraph description of the research presented in your paper. The paragraph that comprises the abstract should include a description of the intent and conduct

(including participants and method) of your project, the results you obtained, and the projects implications or applications. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Abstract The abstract of an experimental report consists of a brief (up to 120 words) one paragraph description of the research presented in your paper. The paragraph that comprises the abstract should

include a description of the intent and conduct (including participants and method) of your project, the results you obtained, and the projects implications or applications. It is important to note that the abstract is typed in block form; there is not indentation on the first line. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

The first major section of the APA-format paper. Contains the thesis statement, review of relevant literature, and experimental hypothesis. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

The first major section of the APA-format paper. Contains the thesis statement, review of relevant literature, and experimental hypothesis. Your introduction section begins on page 3 of your report. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

The first major section of the APA-format paper. Contains the thesis statement, review of relevant literature, and experimental hypothesis. Your introduction section begins on page 3 of your report. The level 1 heading from this section is the title from page 1. Be sure that it is exactly the same in both places. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

The first major section of the APA-format paper. Contains the thesis statement, review of relevant literature, and experimental hypothesis. Your introduction section begins on page 3 of your report. The level 1 heading from this section is the title from page 1. Be sure that it is exactly the same in both

places. The introduction starts off broad, then narrows to a specific focus leading to a logical experimental question. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction The first sentence on page 5 (Figure 14-5) forms the thesis statement for the student manuscript. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

The first sentence on page 5 (Figure 14-5) forms the thesis statement for the student manuscript. The thesis statement should indicate the general topic in which you are interested and your general view of the relation of the relevant variables in that area. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

The first sentence on page 5 (Figure 14-5) forms the thesis statement for the student manuscript. The thesis statement should indicate the general topic in which you are interested and your general view of the relation of the relevant variables in that area. Note that every fact-based statement is supported by a citation to a reference.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction The first sentence on page 5 (Figure 14-5) forms the thesis statement for the student manuscript. The thesis statement should indicate the general topic

in which you are interested and your general view of the relation of the relevant variables in that area. Note that every fact-based statement is supported by a citation to a reference. If you wish to locate one of the references cited, you can find the necessary information in the reference section. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction Citation

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction Citation A notation in text that a particular reference was used. The citation provides the name(s) of the author(s) and date of the works publication. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

Citation A notation in text that a particular reference was used. The citation provides the name(s) of the author(s) and date of the works publication. Reference Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

Citation A notation in text that a particular reference was used. The citation provides the name(s) of the author(s) and date of the works publication. Reference A full bibliographic record of any work cited in the text of a psychological paper.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction Citation A notation in text that a particular reference was used. The citation provides the name(s) of the

author(s) and date of the works publication. Reference A full bibliographic record of any work cited in the text of a psychological paper. Reference section Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

Citation A notation in text that a particular reference was used. The citation provides the name(s) of the author(s) and date of the works publication. Reference A full bibliographic record of any work cited in the text of a psychological paper. Reference section A complete listing of all the references cited in a psychological paper.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction A second point on writing in APA style is that the use of unbiased language is imperative. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Introduction

A second point on writing in APA style is that the use of unbiased language is imperative. Unbiased language is language that does not state or imply a prejudice toward any individual or group. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method The objective of the method section is to provide

sufficient detail about your experiment to enable readers to evaluate its appropriateness or replicate your study should they desire. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method The objective of the method section is to provide sufficient detail about your experiment to enable readers to evaluate its appropriateness or replicate your study

should they desire. The method section is typically made up of three subsections: participants, apparatus (also designated materials or testing instruments), and procedure. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

The objective of the method section is to provide sufficient detail about your experiment to enable readers to evaluate its appropriateness or replicate your study should they desire. The method section is typically made up of three subsections: participants, apparatus (also designated materials or testing instruments), and procedure. Method is a level 1 section heading. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

The objective of the method section is to provide sufficient detail about your experiment to enable readers to evaluate its appropriateness or replicate your study should they desire. The method section is typically made up of three subsections: participants, apparatus (also designated materials or testing instruments), and procedure. Method is a level 1 section heading. The participants subsection enumerates and describes the experimental participants.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method The method section is typically made up of three subsections: participants, apparatus (also designated materials or testing instruments), and procedure. Method is a level 1 section heading. The participants subsection enumerates and

describes the experimental participants. It is the first subsection of the method section. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method The method section is typically made up of three

subsections: participants, apparatus (also designated materials or testing instruments), and procedure. Method is a level 1 section heading. The participants subsection enumerates and describes the experimental participants. It is the first subsection of the method section. Participants is a level 3 heading. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Level 3 heading

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Level 3 heading A section title that is left-margin-justified, underlined, and has the first letter of each major word capitalized. Occupies a line by itself. The subsection on participants answers three questions:

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Level 3 heading A section title that is left-margin-justified, underlined, and has the first letter of each major word capitalized. Occupies a line by itself. The subsection on participants answers three questions:

Who participated in the study? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Level 3 heading A section title that is left-margin-justified, underlined, and has the first letter of each major word

capitalized. Occupies a line by itself. The subsection on participants answers three questions: Who participated in the study? How many participants were there? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Level 3 heading A section title that is left-margin-justified, underlined, and has the first letter of each major word capitalized. Occupies a line by itself. The subsection on participants answers three questions: Who participated in the study? How many participants were there? How were the participants selected? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Apparatus, Materials, or Testing Instruments. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Materials subsection Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Method Materials subsection The second subsection of the method section. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Materials subsection The second subsection of the method section. When appropriate, contains information about materials other than equipment used in the experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Apparatus subsection

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Apparatus subsection The second subsection of the method section. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Apparatus subsection The second subsection of the method section. When appropriate, contains information about materials other than equipment used in the experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Apparatus subsection The second subsection of the method section. When appropriate, contains information about materials other than equipment used in the experiment. If you use equipment in the experiment, you should label this subsection Apparatus. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Testing Instrument(s) subsection Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Testing Instrument(s) subsection The second subsection of the method section.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method Testing Instrument(s) subsection The second subsection of the method section. When appropriate, contains information about standardized tests used in the experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Method

Testing Instrument(s) subsection The second subsection of the method section. When appropriate, contains information about standardized tests used in the experiment. If your equipment consists of standardized psychological testing materials, then the label Testing Instruments (or Measures) would be appropriate.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure The third subsection of the method section. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

The third subsection of the method section. Provides a step-by-step account of what the participants and experimenter did during the experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure The third subsection of the method section.

Provides a step-by-step account of what the participants and experimenter did during the experiment. Your primary goal in the procedure subsection is to describe how you conducted your experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

The third subsection of the method section. Provides a step-by-step account of what the participants and experimenter did during the experiment. Your primary goal in the procedure subsection is to describe how you conducted your experiment. You should give enough information to allow a replication of your method, but do not include unnecessary details. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

Here is a list of details you should include in this section: Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Recruited participants from various locations on campus Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Recruited participants from various locations on campus Order of presentation of materials Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Recruited participants from various locations on campus Order of presentation of materials Random assignment

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Recruited participants from various locations on campus

Order of presentation of materials Random assignment DV questions embedded among filler questions Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure Here is a list of details you should include in this section:

2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Recruited participants from various locations on campus Order of presentation of materials Random assignment DV questions embedded among filler questions Debriefing after participation

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure Here is a list of details you should include in this section: 2 X 2 design Between-subjects design Recruited participants from various locations on campus

Order of presentation of materials Random assignment DV questions embedded among filler questions Debriefing after participation 4 experimental conditions Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure

The procedure subsection is typically the longest of the three components of the method section. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure The procedure subsection is typically the longest of the three components of the method section. Its length will vary depending on the complexity of your

experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Procedure The procedure subsection is typically the longest of the three components of the method section. Its length will vary depending on the complexity of your

experiment. The key point is that experimenters should provide you with the information you need to understand what they did in their experiment and how they did it. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

The third major section of the APA-format paper. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results The third major section of the APA-format paper. Contains information about the statistical findings from the experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Results The third major section of the APA-format paper. Contains information about the statistical findings from the experiment. It is your job in the results section to decode the meaning of your numbers into words for the reader. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Results The third major section of the APA-format paper. Contains information about the statistical findings from the experiment. It is your job in the results section to decode the meaning of your numbers into words for the reader.

At the same time you must provide the factual, numerical basis to back your decoding. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Inferential Statistics Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Inferential Statistics As you write the results section, you should assume that your reader has a good understanding of statistics. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Inferential Statistics

As you write the results section, you should assume that your reader has a good understanding of statistics. Therefore, you do not review basic concepts such as how the null hypothesis is rejected. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Inferential Statistics

As you write the results section, you should assume that your reader has a good understanding of statistics. Therefore, you do not review basic concepts such as how the null hypothesis is rejected. The most important information to report is the specific findings from your inferential statistics. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Inferential Statistics As you write the results section, you should assume that your reader has a good understanding of statistics. Therefore, you do not review basic concepts such as how the null hypothesis is rejected. The most important information to report is the specific findings from your inferential statistics. In presenting inferential statistical results, you must

present the test that was used, the degrees of freedom for the test, the test statistics, the probability level, and a measure of effect size. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Descriptive statistics In order to give a full picture of the data, it is customary to present descriptive statistics in addition to the inferential statistics. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Descriptive statistics In order to give a full picture of the data, it is customary to present descriptive statistics in addition to the inferential statistics. Means and standard deviations typically allow readers to get a good feel for the data. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Descriptive statistics In order to give a full picture of the data, it is customary to present descriptive statistics in addition to the inferential statistics. Means and standard deviations typically allow readers to get a good feel for the data. With a small number of groups, you can present the descriptive statistics in the text. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Descriptive statistics In order to give a full picture of the data, it is customary to present descriptive statistics in addition to the inferential statistics. Means and standard deviations typically allow readers to get a good feel for the data. With a small number of groups, you can present the descriptive statistics in the text.

With many groups, it may be more efficient and clearer to present the descriptive statistics in either a table or a figure. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics A figure is a pictorial representation of a set of results.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics A figure is a pictorial representation of a set of results. It is likely that the majority of figures you will use will be line graphs or bar graphs. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Results Descriptive statistics A figure is a pictorial representation of a set of results. It is likely that the majority of figures you will use will be line graphs or bar graphs. It may be easier to see an interaction in a line graph than in a bar graph.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics

A figure is a pictorial representation of a set of results. It is likely that the majority of figures you will use will be line graphs or bar graphs. It may be easier to see an interaction in a line graph than in a bar graph. Be sure to refer to your figures in the text at an appropriate place. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics

A figure is a pictorial representation of a set of results. It is likely that the majority of figures you will use will be line graphs or bar graphs. It may be easier to see an interaction in a line graph than in a bar graph. Be sure to refer to your figures in the text at an appropriate place. The advantage of a figure over a table is accessibility the data, particularly the significant interaction, seem easier to understand and conceptualize in the pictorial

presentation. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics A table consists of a display of data, usually in numerical form. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Descriptive statistics A table consists of a display of data, usually in numerical form. To use a table, your data display should be large enough that it would be difficult or confusing to present in the text. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results

Descriptive statistics A table consists of a display of data, usually in numerical form. To use a table, your data display should be large enough that it would be difficult or confusing to present in the text. The advantage of the table over the figure is that standard deviations can be included in the table.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Results Descriptive statistics A table consists of a display of data, usually in numerical form. To use a table, your data display should be large enough that it would be difficult or confusing to present in the text.

The advantage of the table over the figure is that standard deviations can be included in the table. If you use a table in your paper, be sure to refer to it at the appropriate point. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

The fourth major section of the APA-format paper. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion The fourth major section of the APA-format paper. Contains a summary of the experiments results, a comparison of those results to previous research, and

the conclusion(s) from the experiment. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section: Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section: What have I contributed here? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section:

What have I contributed here? How has my study helped to resolve the original problem? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section: What have I contributed here?

How has my study helped to resolve the original problem? What conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section: What have I contributed here? How has my study helped to resolve the original problem? What conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study? Typically, authors answer these three questions by: Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section: What have I contributed here? How has my study helped to resolve the original problem? What conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study?

Typically, authors answer these three questions by: Briefly restating their findings Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section:

What have I contributed here? How has my study helped to resolve the original problem? What conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study? Typically, authors answer these three questions by: Briefly restating their findings Comparing and contrasting their findings to previous research cited in the introduction

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion You should be guided by three questions in the discussion section: What have I contributed here? How has my study helped to resolve the original problem?

What conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study? Typically, authors answer these three questions by: Briefly restating their findings Comparing and contrasting their findings to previous research cited in the introduction Giving their interpretation of their findings Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

Restating results Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Restating results Your first task in the discussion section is to recap your results as briefly as possible.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Restating results Your first task in the discussion section is to recap your results as briefly as possible. Typically, you will summarize only your significant findings, unless a null finding is particularly meaningful.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Comparing results to previous research Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

Comparing results to previous research It is important for you to evaluate how your results stack up against previous findings in your area of research you summarized in your introduction. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Comparing results to previous research It is important for you to evaluate how your results

stack up against previous findings in your area of research you summarized in your introduction. Typically, you will have made a prediction before the experiment about your expected findings based on your survey of previous research. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Comparing results to previous research

It is important for you to evaluate how your results stack up against previous findings in your area of research you summarized in your introduction. Typically, you will have made a prediction before the experiment about your expected findings based on your survey of previous research. You should tell the reader how accurate your predictions were. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

Comparing results to previous research It is important for you to evaluate how your results stack up against previous findings in your area of research you summarized in your introduction. Typically, you will have made a prediction before the experiment about your expected findings based on your survey of previous research. You should tell the reader how accurate your predictions were.

If you correctly predicted your results from previous research, the previous research and your study are both validated. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Comparing results to previous research Typically, you will have made a prediction before the experiment about your expected findings based on your survey of previous research.

You should tell the reader how accurate your predictions were. If you correctly predicted your results from previous research, the previous research and your study are both validated. If your prediction is not borne out, some doubt is cast either your research or the previous research may be flawed in some way. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

Interpreting the results Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Interpreting the results This portion of the discussion section gives you more of a free hand to engage in conjecture and

speculation than any other portion of the experimental writeup. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Interpreting the results This portion of the discussion section gives you more of a free hand to engage in conjecture and speculation than any other portion of the experimental writeup.

It is here that you draw the bottom line to your study: Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Interpreting the results This portion of the discussion section gives you more of a free hand to engage in conjecture and speculation than any other portion of the experimental writeup.

It is here that you draw the bottom line to your study: What is the overall conclusion? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Interpreting the results This portion of the discussion section gives you more of a free hand to engage in conjecture and

speculation than any other portion of the experimental writeup. It is here that you draw the bottom line to your study: What is the overall conclusion? What are the implications of your results for any psychological theories? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion

Interpreting the results This portion of the discussion section gives you more of a free hand to engage in conjecture and speculation than any other portion of the experimental writeup. It is here that you draw the bottom line to your study: What is the overall conclusion? What are the implications of your results for any psychological theories?

How can your results be applied in various settings the laboratory, the real world, our body of psychological knowledge? Sections of the APAFormat Paper Discussion Interpreting the results This portion of the discussion section gives you more of a free hand to engage in conjecture and speculation than any other portion of the experimental writeup.

It is here that you draw the bottom line to your study: What is the overall conclusion? What are the implications of your results for any psychological theories? How can your results be applied in various settings the laboratory, the real world, our body of psychological knowledge? What new research should grow out of this study? Sections of the APAFormat Paper

References Sections of the APAFormat Paper References There are two important reasons why it is your responsibility to provide a complete list of accurate references to any published works that you cite in your research report:

Sections of the APAFormat Paper References There are two important reasons why it is your responsibility to provide a complete list of accurate references to any published works that you cite in your research report: You must give credit to the original author(s) for any ideas and information that you got from reading other works.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper References There are two important reasons why it is your responsibility to provide a complete list of accurate references to any published works that you cite in your research report: You must give credit to the original author(s) for any ideas and information that you got from reading other works.

If you take exact wordings, paraphrases, or even ideas from an author without giving credit for that source, you are guilty of plagiarism. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References There are two important reasons why it is your responsibility to provide a complete list of accurate references to any published works that you cite in your research report:

You must give credit to the original author(s) for any ideas and information that you got from reading other works. You are providing a historical account of the sources you used in the event that a reader wishes to read them in their entirety. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

There are two important reasons why it is your responsibility to provide a complete list of accurate references to any published works that you cite in your research report: You must give credit to the original author(s) for any ideas and information that you got from reading other works. You are providing a historical account of the sources you used in the event that a reader wishes to read them in their entirety. The only references that you list are those from which you actually obtained information and cited somewhere in

your paper. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References The only references that you list are those from which you actually obtained information and cited somewhere in your paper. If you do not cite a particular source, you should not reference it.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Periodical Articles Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

Periodical Articles The PM shows examples of 22 different types of references to periodicals on pages 240-247. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Periodical Articles The PM shows examples of 22 different types of references to periodicals on pages 240-247.

Your most typical use of periodicals will probably be to reference articles in journals. The general format for periodicals is as follows: Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Periodical Articles The PM shows examples of 22 different types of references to periodicals on pages 240-247.

Your most typical use of periodicals will probably be to reference articles in journals. The general format for periodicals is as follows: Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author C. C. (date). Title of article. Title of periodical, vol, ppp-ppp. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Books

The PM provides 11 examples of references to books on pages 248-251. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Books The PM provides 11 examples of references to books on pages 248-251.

The general format for a book reference is: Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Books The PM provides 11 examples of references to books on pages 248-251. The general format for a book reference is:

Author, A. A. (date). Title of work. Location: Publisher. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Chapters from edited books Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

Chapters from edited books Most edited books contain chapters written by different authors. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Chapters from edited books

Most edited books contain chapters written by different authors. You can cite information from a single chapter within such a book. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Chapters from edited books Most edited books contain chapters written by

different authors. You can cite information from a single chapter within such a book. The PM gives seven examples of such references on pages 252-255. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Chapters from edited books

Most edited books contain chapters written by different authors. You can cite information from a single chapter within such a book. The PM gives seven examples of such references on pages 252-255. The general format for a reference for a chapter from an edited book is: Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

Chapters from edited books Most edited books contain chapters written by different authors. You can cite information from a single chapter within such a book. The PM gives seven examples of such references on pages 252-255.

The general format for a reference for a chapter from an edited book is: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter. In C. C. Editor, D. D. Editor, & E. E. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. nnn-nnn). Location: Publisher. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References World Wide Web Sources

Sections of the APAFormat Paper References World Wide Web Sources Providing references for information that you obtain from the World Wide Web is just as important as providing references for written material in fact, it may be even more important. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

World Wide Web Sources Providing references for information that you obtain from the World Wide Web is just as important as providing references for written material in fact, it may be even more important. Unlike journal articles or books, material on the Web can change quite rapidly. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

References World Wide Web Sources Providing references for information that you obtain from the World Wide Web is just as important as providing references for written material in fact, it may be even more important. Unlike journal articles or books, material on the Web can change quite rapidly.

The PM has an extensive section dealing with electronic media references, which includes 25 examples of Internet and Web references on pages 268-281. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References World Wide Web Sources Providing references for information that you obtain from the World Wide Web is just as important as

providing references for written material in fact, it may be even more important. Unlike journal articles or books, material on the Web can change quite rapidly. The PM has an extensive section dealing with electronic media references, which includes 25 examples of Internet and Web references on pages 268-281. Here is an example of a citation to information on a Web site: Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

Here is an example of a citation to information on a Web site: American Psychological Association. (2001). Electronic reference formats recommended by the American Psychological Association. Retrieved September 6, 2002, from http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html Sections of the APAFormat Paper

References Other references Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Other references

Although we expect that most of your references will be to periodicals, books, and chapters in edited books, the PM has 30 examples of other types of references you might use. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References Other references Although we expect that most of your references will be to periodicals, books, and chapters in edited

books, the PM has 30 examples of other types of references you might use. These other references include technical and research reports, proceedings of meetings and symposia, doctoral dissertations and masters theses, unpublished works and publications of limited circulation, reviews, and audiovisual media. Sections of the APAFormat Paper References

Other references Although we expect that most of your references will be to periodicals, books, and chapters in edited books, the PM has 30 examples of other types of references you might use. These other references include technical and research reports, proceedings of meetings and symposia, doctoral dissertations and masters theses, unpublished works and publications of limited circulation, reviews, and audiovisual media. No matter what type of material you wish to reference, the PM will have a format for you.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Appendix Sections of the APAFormat Paper Appendix Most published articles do not contain an appendix because of space limitations.

Sections of the APAFormat Paper Appendix Most published articles do not contain an appendix because of space limitations. Appendices are more common in student papers. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Appendix

Most published articles do not contain an appendix because of space limitations. Appendices are more common in student papers. Typically you include information that might help readers understand some details of your study that would be distracting in the body of the paper. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Author Note Sections of the APAFormat Paper Author Note A note at the end of an experimental report that contains information about the author or paper for readers use. Sections of the APAFormat Paper

Headings Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings APA-format papers use a different type of heading for each section of the report. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings

APA-format papers use a different type of heading for each section of the report. The major sections of the report, such as the introduction, method, results, and discussion are introduced by a level 1 heading. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings

APA-format papers use a different type of heading for each section of the report. The major sections of the report, such as the introduction, method, results, and discussion are introduced by a level 1 heading. Subsections within these main sections are introduced by lower-level headings. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings

APA-format papers use a different type of heading for each section of the report. The major sections of the report, such as the introduction, method, results, and discussion are introduced by a level 1 heading. Subsections within these main sections are introduced by lower-level headings.

The participants, apparatus, and procedure subsections of the method section are generally introduced by a level 3 heading. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings The participants, apparatus, and procedure subsections of the method section are generally introduced by a level 3 heading. Level 3 headings are left-margin justified, are

italicized, have the first letter of each major word capitalized, and occupy a line by themselves. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings The participants, apparatus, and procedure subsections of the method section are generally introduced by a level 3 heading. Level 3 headings are left-margin justified, are italicized, have the first letter of each major word

capitalized, and occupy a line by themselves. Should you need to further subdivide these subsections, use a level 4 heading. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings The participants, apparatus, and procedure subsections of the method section are generally introduced by a level 3 heading.

Level 3 headings are left-margin justified, are italicized, have the first letter of each major word capitalized, and occupy a line by themselves. Should you need to further subdivide these subsections, use a level 4 heading. A level 4 heading is indented five spaces, underlined, has only the first word capitalized, and ends with a period. Sections of the APAFormat Paper Headings

The participants, apparatus, and procedure subsections of the method section are generally introduced by a level 3 heading. Level 3 headings are left-margin justified, are italicized, have the first letter of each major word capitalized, and occupy a line by themselves. Should you need to further subdivide these subsections, use a level 4 heading. A level 4 heading is indented five spaces, underlined, has only the first word capitalized, and

ends with a period. It does not occupy a separate line. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Writing in APA Style General Guidelines

The main objective of scientific writing is clear communication. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines The main objective of scientific writing is clear communication. It is your job to communicate your ideas as clearly as possible to the reader.

Writing in APA Style General Guidelines The main objective of scientific writing is clear communication. It is your job to communicate your ideas as clearly as possible to the reader.

The PM provides you wit several hints about how to accomplish this goal (be sure to read pages 31-40 in the PM to supplement the following information). Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Orderly Presentation of Ideas Writing in APA Style

General Guidelines Orderly Presentation of Ideas The key idea here is continuity. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Orderly Presentation of Ideas

The key idea here is continuity. From the beginning of your research report to the end, you are focusing on an idea or thought in which you tell the reader about your experiment. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Orderly Presentation of Ideas The key idea here is continuity.

From the beginning of your research report to the end, you are focusing on an idea or thought in which you tell the reader about your experiment. Dont detour as you write your manuscript. Get on track and stay there with a singleminded purpose. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Smoothness of Expression

Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Smoothness of Expression Writing in a continuous fashion will greatly aid your smoothness of expression. Writing in APA Style

General Guidelines Smoothness of Expression Writing in a continuous fashion will greatly aid your smoothness of expression. One of the best things you can do to make your writing smooth is to work on transition sentences when you shift from one topic to another. Writing in APA Style

General Guidelines Smoothness of Expression Writing in a continuous fashion will greatly aid your smoothness of expression. One of the best things you can do to make your writing smooth is to work on transition sentences when you shift from one topic to another. Try to avoid abrupt shifts that make readers feel they have run into a wall.

Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Economy of Expression Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Economy of Expression

It is important to be direct and to the point in your writing. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Economy of Expression It is important to be direct and to the point in your writing.

When journal editors work on submitted manuscripts, they have only a limited number of pages available for the printed journal. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Economy of Expression It is important to be direct and to the point in your writing.

When journal editors work on submitted manuscripts, they have only a limited number of pages available for the printed journal. The PM specifically advises you to avoid jargon, wordiness, and redundancy. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Precision and Clarity

Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Precision and Clarity Make sure that the words you use fit the exact purpose and meaning that you have in mind. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines

Precision and Clarity Make sure that the words you use fit the exact purpose and meaning that you have in mind. Clarity rarely occurs on a first attempt at writing be sure that you reread and edit everything you write. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines

Strategies to Improve Writing Style Writing in APA Style General Guidelines Strategies to Improve Writing Style The PM (2001) suggests three approaches to becoming a more effective writer (p. 40): Writing in APA Style

General Guidelines The PM (2001) suggests three approaches to becoming a more effective writer (p. 40): Write from an outline. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines

The PM (2001) suggests three approaches to becoming a more effective writer (p. 40): Write from an outline. Write your first draft, put it away, and reread it after a delay. Writing in APA Style General Guidelines

The PM (2001) suggests three approaches to becoming a more effective writer (p. 40): Write from an outline. Write your first draft, put it away, and reread it after a delay. Ask someone to evaluate your writing. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM covers a variety of guidelines about grammar on pages 40-61. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

The PM covers a variety of guidelines about grammar on pages 40-61. Passive Voice Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Passive Voice According to the PM, as well as other style guides, you should use active voice rather than passive voice in

writing your research report. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Passive Voice According to the PM, as well as other style guides, you should use active voice rather than passive voice in writing your research report.

That versus Which Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Passive Voice According to the PM, as well as other style guides, you should use active voice rather than passive voice in writing your research report.

That versus Which Clauses beginning with that are termed restrictive clauses and should be essential to the meaning of the sentence. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines That versus Which Clauses beginning with that are termed restrictive

clauses and should be essential to the meaning of the sentence. Clauses beginning with which can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive (simply adding additional information). Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines That versus Which Clauses beginning with that are termed restrictive

clauses and should be essential to the meaning of the sentence. Clauses beginning with which can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive (simply adding additional information). In APA style, you should confine yourself to using which for nonrestrictive clauses. Thus, that and which should not be used interchangeably. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

That versus Which Clauses beginning with that are termed restrictive clauses and should be essential to the meaning of the sentence. Clauses beginning with which can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive (simply adding additional information). In APA style, you should confine yourself to using which for nonrestrictive clauses. Thus, that and which should not be used interchangeably. Nonrestrictive clauses should be set off with commas.

For example: Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines That versus Which Clauses beginning with that are termed restrictive clauses and should be essential to the meaning of the sentence. Clauses beginning with which can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive (simply adding additional information).

In APA style, you should confine yourself to using which for nonrestrictive clauses. Thus, that and which should not be used interchangeably. Nonrestrictive clauses should be set off with commas. For example: The stimulus items, which were nouns, appeared on a computer monitor. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

Words with Temporal Meaning Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Words with Temporal Meaning The words since and while can cause difficulty in scientific writing because they have more than one meaning in everyday usage.

Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Words with Temporal Meaning The words since and while can cause difficulty in scientific writing because they have more than one meaning in everyday usage. Writers often use since interchangeably with because and use while to substitute for although.

Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Words with Temporal Meaning The words since and while can cause difficulty in scientific writing because they have more than one meaning in everyday usage. Writers often use since interchangeably with because and use while to substitute for although.

APA style specifies that since and while should only be used for temporal purposes (to make time comparisons). Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Words with Temporal Meaning The words since and while can cause difficulty in scientific writing because they have more than one meaning in everyday usage.

Writers often use since interchangeably with because and use while to substitute for although. APA style specifies that since and while should only be used for temporal purposes (to make time comparisons). Use while to denote events that occur at the same time and since to denote that time has passed. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

Words with Temporal Meaning The words since and while can cause difficulty in scientific writing because they have more than one meaning in everyday usage. Writers often use since interchangeably with because and use while to substitute for although. APA style specifies that since and while should only be used for temporal purposes (to make time comparisons).

Use while to denote events that occur at the same time and since to denote that time has passed. Here are a couple of examples: Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Words with Temporal Meaning The words since and while can cause difficulty in scientific writing because they have more than one

meaning in everyday usage. Writers often use since interchangeably with because and use while to substitute for although. APA style specifies that since and while should only be used for temporal purposes (to make time comparisons). Use while to denote events that occur at the same time and since to denote that time has passed. Here are a couple of examples: Many different IQ tests have evolved since Binets original version.

Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Words with Temporal Meaning APA style specifies that since and while should only be used for temporal purposes (to make time comparisons). Use while to denote events that occur at the same time and since to denote that time has passed.

Here are a couple of examples: Many different IQ tests have evolved since Binets original version. While the participants were studying the verbal items, they heard music. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines Bias in Language Writing in APA Style

Grammatical Guidelines Bias in Language Unbiased language is important in helping maintain a neutral (unbiased) approach to science. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

Bias in Language Unbiased language is important in helping maintain a neutral (unbiased) approach to science. The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity.

You should describe people as specifically as you can. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. You should describe people as specifically as you can.

For example, Japanese Americans is more specific than Asian Americans. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels.

Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels. We should refer to groups as they wish to be referred to rather than imposing our own labels on

them. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels. We should refer to groups as they wish to be

referred to rather than imposing our own labels on them. People diagnosed with schizophrenia is both more accurate and more preferred than schizophrenics (PM, p. 64). Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing:

Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels. Acknowledge participation. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing:

Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels. Acknowledge participation. The general idea of this guideline is to make sure you remember that the participants in your experiment are individuals. Writing in APA Style Grammatical Guidelines

The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels. Acknowledge participation. The general idea of this guideline is to make sure you remember that the participants in your experiment are individuals. This idea formed the rationale for changing the label subjects to the label participants. Writing in APA Style

Grammatical Guidelines The PM gives three guidelines that may be helpful in reducing bias in writing: Describe at the appropriate level of specificity. Be sensitive to labels. Acknowledge participation. The general idea of this guideline is to make sure you remember that the participants in your

experiment are individuals. This idea formed the rationale for changing the label subjects to the label participants. Using active rather than passive voice also helps to personalize your participants. APA Editorial Style Chapter 3 of the PM (pp. 77-214) addresses APA editorial style. APA Editorial Style

Chapter 3 of the PM (pp. 77-214) addresses APA editorial style. This chapter gives writers a style guide to follow that will help create uniformity in writing by different authors in different publications. APA Editorial Style

Chapter 3 of the PM (pp. 77-214) addresses APA editorial style. This chapter gives writers a style guide to follow that will help create uniformity in writing by different authors in different publications. In addition to the important aspects of APA editorial style we have covered to this point, you should be aware that the PM gives you guidance on issues such as punctuation, spelling, capitalization, italics, abbreviations, seriation, quotations, numbers, footnotes, and appendixes. Preparing Your Manuscript

Chapter 5 of the PM (pp. 283-320) provides the guidelines you need in order to actually type your experimental paper. Preparing Your Manuscript Chapter 5 of the PM (pp. 283-320) provides the guidelines you need in order to actually type your experimental paper. This is probably one of the most-used chapters in the manual because it includes three sample papers (pp. 306-320).

Preparing Your Manuscript Chapter 5 of the PM (pp. 283-320) provides the guidelines you need in order to actually type your experimental paper. This is probably one of the most-used chapters in the manual because it includes three sample papers (pp. 306-320). These sample papers include notations of specific sections

of the manual for each important component of the paper. Preparing Your Manuscript Chapter 5 of the PM (pp. 283-320) provides the guidelines you need in order to actually type your experimental paper. This is probably one of the most-used chapters in the manual because it includes three sample papers (pp. 306-320).

These sample papers include notations of specific sections of the manual for each important component of the paper. You should consult chapter 5 of the PM whenever you have a question about typing a specific portion of your manuscript. Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Double-space everything everywhere. Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing

Double-space everything everywhere. Margins Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing

Double-space everything everywhere. Margins Use at least 1-inch margins on all sides. Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Double-space everything everywhere. Margins Use at least 1-inch margins on all sides. Lines Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Double-space everything everywhere. Margins Use at least 1-inch margins on all sides. Lines Set your word processor to left justification.

Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing Double-space everything everywhere. Margins

Use at least 1-inch margins on all sides. Lines Set your word processor to left justification. Your paper should have a ragged right edge throughout. Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Number all pages (including the title page, excepting figures) consecutively. Preparing Your Manuscript

Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Number all pages (including the title page, excepting figures) consecutively.

The following sections should begin on new pages: title page, abstract, introduction, references, appendixes, author note, footnotes, tables (a separate page for each), figure captions (all on one sheet), figures (each on a separate page). Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Word spacing Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Word spacing Space once after all punctuation, including plus and minus signs in equations. Preparing Your Manuscript

Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Word spacing

Space once after all punctuation, including plus and minus signs in equations. There is no spacing after hyphens or dashes. Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Word spacing Quotations Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions:

Line spacing Margins Lines Pages Word spacing Quotations Enclose quotations that are shorter than 40 words in double quotation marks ( ) and write them as part of

the text. Preparing Your Manuscript Here is a short list of the highlights of the typing instructions: Line spacing

Margins Lines Pages Word spacing Quotations Enclose quotations that are shorter than 40 words in double quotation marks ( ) and write them as part of the text. Longer quotations should be blocked (indented) from the left margin.

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