# Chapter 8: Arrays Chapter 8: Arrays Wednesday 15th of November Introduction to Arrays Primitive variables are designed to hold only one value at a time. Arrays allow us to create a collection of like values that are indexed. An array can store any type of data but only one type of data at a time.

An array is a list of data elements. Creating Arrays An array is an object so it needs an object reference. int[] numbers; //declares a reference to an array that will hold integers. The next step creates the array and assigns its address to the numbers variable numbers = new int; //creates a new array that will hold 6 integers. 0

0 0 0 0 0 index 0 index 1 index 2 index 3

index 4 index 5 Array element values are initialized to 0. Array indexes always start at 0. Creating Arrays It is possible to declare an array reference and create it in the same statement. int[] numbers = new int;

Arrays may be of any type, not just int. float[] temperatures = new float; char[] letters = new char; long[] units = new long; double[] sizes = new double; Creating Arrays The array size must be a nonnegative number. It may be a literal value or be derived from a constant or variable. final int ARRAY_SIZE = 6; int[] numbers = new int[ARRAY_SIZE];

Once created, an array size is fixed and cannot be changed. Accessing the Elements of an Array 20 0 0 0

0 0 numbers numbers numbers numbers numbers numbers An array is accessed by:

the reference name a subscript that identifies which element in the array to access. numbers = 20; //pronounced numbers sub zero Inputting and Outputting Array Elements Array elements can be treated as any other variable. They are simply accessed by the same name and a subscript.

Example: ArrayDemo1.java import javax.swing.JOptionPane; public class ArrayDemo1 { public static void main(String[] args) { final int EMPLOYEES = 3; // Number of employees int[] hours = new int[EMPLOYEES]; // Array of hours System.out.println("Enter the hours worked by " + EMPLOYEES + " employees."); Example: ArrayDemo1.java hours = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog( Enter the hours worked by Employee 1: ")); hours = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog( Enter the hours worked by Employee 2: "));

hours = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog( Enter the hours worked by Employee 3: ")); System.out.println("The hours you entered are:"); System.out.println(hours); System.out.println(hours); System.out.println(hours); } } Inputting and Outputting Array Elements Array subscripts can be accessed using variables (such as for loop counters). Example: ArrayDemo2.java

import javax.swing.JOptionPane; public class ArrayDemo2 { public static void main(String[] args) { final int EMPLOYEES = 3; // Number of employees int[] hours = new int[EMPLOYEES]; // Array of hours System.out.println("Enter the hours worked by " + EMPLOYEES + " employees."); Example: ArrayDemo2.java for (int index = 0; index < EMPLOYEES; index++) { hours[index] = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog( Enter the hours worked by Employee " +

(index+1) )); } System.out.println("The hours you entered are:"); for (int index = 0; index < EMPLOYEES; index++) System.out.println(hours[index]); } } Bounds Checking Array indexes always start at zero and continue to (array length - 1). int values = new int;

This array would have indexes 0 through 9. In for loops, it is typical to use i, j, and k as counting variables. It might help to think of i as representing the word index. Example: InvalidSubscript.java public class InvalidSubscript { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] values = new int; System.out.println("I will attempt to store four " + "numbers in a three-element array."); for (int index = 0; index < 4; index++) { System.out.println("Now processing element " +

index); values[index] = 10; } } } Off-by-One Errors It is very easy to be off-by-one when accessing arrays. // This code has an off-by-one error. int[] numbers = new int; for (int i = 1; i <= 100; i++) numbers[i] = 99;

Here, the equal sign allows the loop to continue on to index 100, where 99 is the last index in the array. This code would throw an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException. Array Initialization When relatively few items need to be initialized, an initialization list can be used to initialize the array. int[]days = {31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31};

The numbers in the list are stored in the array in order: days days days days etc. is is is is

assigned assigned assigned assigned 31, 28, 31, 30, Example: ArrayInitialization.java public class ArrayInitialization { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] days = { 31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30,

31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31 }; for (int index = 0; index < 12; index++) { System.out.println("Month " + (index + 1) + " has " + days[index] + " days."); } } } Alternate Array Declaration Previously we showed arrays being declared: int[] numbers; However, the brackets can also go here:

int numbers[]; These are equivalent but the first style is typical. Multiple arrays can be declared on the same line. int[] numbers, codes, scores; With the alternate notation each variable must have brackets. int numbers[], codes[], scores; The scores variable in

an int variable. this instance is simply Processing Array Contents Processing data in an array is the same as any other variable. grossPay = hours * payRate; Pre and post increment works the same: int[] score = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}; ++score; // Pre-increment operation

score++; // Post-increment operation Example: PayArray.java public class PayArray { public static void main(String[] args) { final int EMPLOYEES = 5; // Number of employees double payRate; // Hourly pay rate double grossPay; // Gross pay int[] hours = new int[EMPLOYEES]; System.out.println("Enter the hours worked by " + EMPLOYEES + " employees who all earn " + "the same hourly rate.") for (int index = 0; index < EMPLOYEES; index++) { hours[index] = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(

Enter the hours worked by Employee " + (index+1) )); } payRate = Double.parseDouble(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(( " Enter the hourly pay rate for each employee: ")); System.out.println( "Here is each employee's gross pay:"); for (int index = 0; index < EMPLOYEES; index++){ grossPay = hours[index] * payRate; System.out.println("Employee #" + (index + 1) + ": \$" + grossPay); } } } Processing Array Contents

Array elements can be used in relational operations: if(cost < cost) { //statements } They can be used as loop conditions: while(value[count] != 0) { //statements } Array Length Arrays are objects and provide a

public field named length that is a constant that can be tested. double[] temperatures = new double; The length of this array is 25. The length of an array can be obtained via its length constant. int size = temperatures.length; The variable size will contain 25. The Enhanced for Loop

Simplified array processing (read only) Always goes through all elements General: for(datatype elementVariable : array) statement; Example: int[] numbers = {3, 6, 9}; For(int val : numbers) { System.out.println(The next value is + val); } Array Size

The length constant can be used in a loop to provide automatic bounding. Index subscripts start at 0 and end at one less than the array length. for(int i = 0; i < temperatures.length; i++) { System.out.println(Temperature + i : + temperatures[i]); } Array Size It is possible to get the size of an array from a user:

String input; int numTests; int[] tests; InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(System.in); BufferedReader keyboard = new BufferedReader(reader); System.out.print("How many numbers do you have? "); input = keyboard.readLine(); numTests = Integer.parseInt(input); tests = new int[numTests]; Example: DisplayTestScores.java public class DisplayTestScores { public static void main(String[] args) {

int numTests; // The number of tests int[] tests; // Array of test scores System.out.print("How many tests do you have? "); numTests = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog( "How many tests do you have? ")); tests = new int[numTests]; Example: DisplayTestScores.java for (int index = 0; index < tests.length; index++) { System.out.print("Enter test score " + (index + 1) + ": "); tests[index] = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog( "Enter test score " + (index + 1) + ": "));

} System.out.println(); System.out.println("Here are the scores you entered:"); for (int index = 0; index < tests.length; index++) System.out.print(tests[index] + " "); } } Reassigning Array References An array reference can be assigned to another array of the same type. // Create an array referenced by the numbers variable. int[] numbers = new int; // Reassign numbers to a new array. numbers = new int;

If the first (ten element) array no longer has a reference to it, it will be garbage collected. Reassigning Array References int[] numbers = new int; The numbers variable holds the address of an int array. Address Reassigning Array References

The numbers variable holds the address of an int array. This array gets marked for garbage collection Address numbers = new int; Copying Arrays This is not the way to copy an array. int[] array1 = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 }; int[] array2 = array1; // This does not copy array1. 2

array1 holds an address to the array Address array2 holds an address to the array Address 4 6 8 10 Example: SameArray.java public class SameArray

{ public static void main(String[] args) { int[] array1 = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 }; int[] array2 = array1; array1 = 200; array2 = 1000; System.out.println("The contents of array1:"); for (int index = 0; index < array1.length; index++) System.out.print(array1[index] + " "); System.out.println(); System.out.println("The contents of array2:"); for (int index = 0; index < array2.length; index++) System.out.print(array2[index] + " "); System.out.println(); } }

Copying Arrays You cannot copy an array by merely assigning one reference variable to another. You need to copy the individual elements of one array to another. int[] firstArray = {5, 10, 15, 20, 25 }; int[] secondArray = new int; for (int i = 0; i < firstArray.length; i++) secondArray[i] = firstArray[i]; This code copies each element of

firstArray to the corresponding element of secondArray. Passing Array Elements to a Method When a single element of an array is passed to a method it is handled like any other variable. More often you will want to write methods to process array data by passing the entire array, not just one element at a time. Example: PassElements.java

public class PassElements { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] numbers = {5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40}; for (int index = 0; index < numbers.length; index++) showValue(numbers[index]); } public static void showValue(int n) { System.out.print(n + " "); } } Passing Arrays as Arguments

Arrays are objects. Their references can be passed to methods like any other object reference variable. showArray(numbers); 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Address public static void showArray(int[] array) { for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) System.out.print(array[i] + " "); } Example: PassArray.java public class PassArray {

public static void main(String[] args) { final int ARRAY_SIZE = 4; // Size of the array int[] numbers = new int[ARRAY_SIZE]; getValues(numbers); System.out.println("Here are the " + "numbers that you entered:"); showArray(numbers); } Example: PassArray.java private static void getValues(int[] array) { System.out.println("Enter a series of " + array.length + " numbers."); for (int index = 0; index < array.length; index++) { array[index] = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(

"Enter number " + (index + 1) + ": )); } } public static void showArray(int[] array) { for (int index = 0; index < array.length; index++) System.out.print(array[index] + " "); } }