Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Development Processes We Need to Support Other Watches and Mobile Devices, and at Least Android Phones. Need to define and document business procedures, train staff, involve other partners Make system more generally available Strategic implication: Spin off PRIDE as separate business?

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-2 Study Questions Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications developed? Q2: How do organizations use business process management (BPM)? Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes?

Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)? Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects? Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC? Q7: 2023? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-3 Q1: How Are Business Processes, IS,

and Applications Developed? Process of creating and maintaining information systems Requires: Establishing system goals Setting up the project Determining requirements Business knowledge and management skill Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-4 Activities in a Business Process and the Correlating Information Systems Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-5 Relationship of Business Processes and Information Systems

1. Business processes, information systems, and applications have different characteristics and components. 2. Relationship of business processes to information systems is many-to-many, or N:M. A business process need not relate to any IS, but IS relates to at least one business process. 3. Every IS has at least one application because every IS has a software component. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-6 Scope of Development Process Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-7 Role of Development Personnel

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-8 Q2: How Do Organizations Use Business Process Management (BPM)? Business process Network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and data flows that interact to accomplish a business function

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-9 Why Do Processes Need Management? Improve Process Quality Change in Technology Change in Business Fundamentals

Market (new customer category, change in customer characteristics) Product lines Supply chain Company policy Company organization (merger, acquisition)

Internationalization Business environment Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-10 What Are BPM Activities? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-11 Q3: How Can BPMN Process Diagrams Help Identify and Solve Process Problems? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-12 As-Is Business

Order Process: Existing Ordering Process Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-13 Check

Customer Credit Process Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-14 Q4: What Are the Phases in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-15 Define System Goals and Scope Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-16 SDLC: Requirements Analysis Phase

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-17 Role of a Prototype

Provides user direct experience Can be expensive to create Parts often reused Cost occurs early, sometimes before full project funding available Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-18 SDLC: Component Design Phase

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-19 SDLC: Implementation Phase Conversion types 1. Pilot 2. Phased 3. Parallel

4. Plunge Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-20 Design and Implementation for the Five Components Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-21 SDLC: System Maintenance Phase Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-22 Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics Estimating is just theoryaverage of many peoples guesses.

Buy-in game Overly optimistic schedules and cost estimates At what point is buy-in within accepted boundaries of conduct? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-23 Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics

Contractor agrees to produce system for less than what will really be required Time and materials contract Fixed-cost contracts In-house projects often started with buy-ins Projects start with hopes of more money later Team members disagree about costs. Do you report it? Not all costs included in initial estimates. Report it? Do you buy-in on project schedule if you cant

make that schedule? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-24 Q5: What Are the Keys for Successful SDLC Projects?

Create a work-breakdown structure. Estimate time and costs. Create a project plan. Adjust plan via trade-offs. Manage development challenges. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-25 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-26

Gantt Chart of the WBS for the Definition Phase of a Project Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-27 Gantt Chart with Resources Assigned Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-28 Primary Drivers of Systems Development Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-29 Manage Development Challenges 1. Coordination

2. Diseconomies of scale 3. Configuration control 4. Unexpected events Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-30 Difficulty of Requirements Determination What specifically is system to do? What, exactly, does the report doctors receive look

like? Will they have both a standard and exception report? Are those reports fixed in structure or can user adapt them? If so, how? How many practices and how many patients per practice will PRIDE support? How much cloud resource needed? Must create environment where difficult questions are asked and answered. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-31 Changing Requirements Systems development aims at moving target The bigger system, the longer the project, the more requirements change. What should development team do? Incorporate changes, build, complete and make changes in maintenance phase?

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-32 Scheduling and Budgeting Difficulties

How long to build it? How long to create data model? How long to build database applications? How long to do testing? How long to develop and document procedures? How long for training? How many labor hours? Labor cost? Whats the rate of return on investment?

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-33 Changing Technology Do you want to stop your development to switch to the new technology? Would it be better to finish developing according to the existing plan? Why build an out-of-date system?

Can you afford to keep changing the project? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-34 Diseconomies of Scale Brooks Law Adding more people to a late project makes the project later. New staff must be trained by productive members

who lose productivity while training. Schedules can be compressed only so far. Once a project is late and over budget, no good choice exists. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-35 Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10: GardenTracker

Suppose you and two or three other students decide to open a business that offers landscaping services. Your goal is to develop a list of clients for whom you provide regular and recurring services. Need information system for tracking customers, services you have provided, and services you are scheduled to provide in the future. As a new small business, you want a simple and affordable system based on Excel or Access. The name of the system is GardenTracker.

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-36 Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10: GardenTracker (contd) 1. Explain how you would use SDLC to develop GardenTracker. 2. Define the scope of your system. 3. Explain process you would use to determine feasibility of GardenTracker.

4. List data you need for such an assessment, and explain how you might obtain or estimate that data. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-37 Q6: How Can Scrum Overcome the Problems of the SDLC?

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-38 Scrum Essentials Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-39

Scrum Process Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-40 When Does Scrum End? Customer is satisfied with product created and accepts it. Project runs out of time. Project runs out of money.

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-41 How Do Requirements Drive the Scrum Process? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-42

Summary of Scrum Estimation Techniques Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-43 Q7: 2023 1. Continuing focus on aligning business processes and information systems with business strategy,

goals, and objectives 2. Computer systems will be more easily changed and adapted 3. The cloud will lead to substantially more innovation 4. Emergence of new software vendor business models Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-44

Security Guide: Psst. Theres Another Way, You Know . . . Do you think servers in China were actually shut down? Large organizations with good IS departments that had a firewall set up on port 24 to only allow traffic to go to IP address of ISP did not lose any designs. What about smaller organizations with minimal IS Department, or supported by small, unsophisticated VAR?

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-45 Guide: The Real Estimation Process Software developers are optimists. People cant work all the time. Apply a factor like 0.6 to compute number of effective labor hours for each employee. Be aware of consequences of negotiating a schedule.

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-46 Active Review Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications developed? Q2: How do organizations use business process management (BPM)? Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes?

Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)? Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects? Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC? Q7: 2023? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-47 Case Study 10: Cost of PRIDE

Typical example of a new software venture So focused on technology and making it work, they neglect to consider what will happen, longer term, if it is a success. Some problem solutions involve staff training and procedures. Longer term, Flores and his partners need a direction. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10-48 Sources of PRIDE Costs Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal 10-49 10-50

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