Byzantine Empire Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Fall of the Roman Empire 164 Antonian Plague spreads through Rome 180 End of Pax Romana 300 Diocletian divides the Empire 313 Constantine legalizes Christianity
410 Visigoths sack Rome 455 Vandals sack Rome 476 Fall of the Western Roman Empire East vs. West Why was the fall of the western Roman Empire more severe than the eastern Roman Empire? What were the consequences of the fall of the western half of Empire? Eastern half? Eastern Rome: A Survivor Society
Constantine established the Eastern capital at Byzantium Constantinople Reasons for Survival Higher level of civilization Fewer nomadic invasions Geography Prosperous commerce Stronger military
The Empire Continued Continued to use many late Roman ideas roads taxation military structure
court system law codes Christianity Attempt to preserve Roman legacy Called themselves Romans Forbid German or barbarian customs Could not wear boots, pants, or clothing made of animal skins
Could not have long hair Justinian (527-565) Byzantine empire reached greatest size under Justinian (527-565) Wanted to rebuild Roman Empire Temporarily regained North Africa, Italy and southern Spain Wife, Theodora, had considerable power Rebuilt Constantinople
Hagia Sophia Justinians Code Byzantine Empire under Justinian The Byzantine Empire under Justinian Hagia Sophia Frankish
Kingdoms Avar Kingdom Parhae Byzantine Empire Sassanid Empire Sui China Silla
Harsha Empire Chalukya Ghana Axum States and Empires in 600 CE Yamoto Japan The New Roman Empire Never as large as the Roman Empire
Arab conquests in 7th century resulted in loss of Syria/Palestine, Egypt, & North Africa Political authority centralized in Constantinople Emperor claimed to be Gods representative on Earth Peer of the Apostles Borrowed Persian & Greek court rituals Carolingian Parhae
Byzantine Cordoba Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate GurjaraPratihara Tang China
Silla Heian Japan Ghana Axum Srivijaya States and Empires in 800 CE Decline of the Empire Begins to decline in 1085
Expansion by rising European powers The Crusades The Fourth Crusade (1204) Turkish Muslims Seljuks Empire falls in 1453 Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks Byzantine Challenges
Union of Kalmar Russian States Scotland England France Portugal PolandKhanate of the Holy Lithuania Golden Horde Roman Empire Hungary
Ming China Ashikaga Japan Mamluk Sultanate Mali Oyo Benin Ethiopia
Vijayanagara Zanj City-States Siam Majapahit Zimbabwe States and Empires in 1400 CE
Byzantine Economy Byzantine coins were the standard currency of Eastern Europe for 500 yrs Manufacturing center Glassware & mosaics Thriving silk industry Process spread from China Government regulated production of silk Established banks and business partnerships
Taxed merchandise that passed through empire The New Rome - Constantinople The New Rome Political, economic, and cultural heart of the empire Largest city in Europe Nearly 1 million people Important trade city Western anchor of
Eurasian trade routes Silk Roads Constantinople in Byzantine Times Byzantine Culture Cultural Foundations Christian beliefs Greek learning Roman engineering Byzantine Education State-organized schools
Widespread literacy Chariot Races Riot of 532 Orthodox Christianity Byzantine emperors combined political and religious authority Caesaropapism Appointed the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church Orthodox or right thinking provided a cultural identity
Empire and the church were essential for achieving salvation Orthodox/Catholic Similarities The Bible Sacraments Church hierarchy of patriarchs (bishops, priests, etc.) Missionary activity Intolerant of other religions The Great Schism - 1054 Orthodox Christianity
Roman Catholic Christianity
Eastern Europe Constantinople Greek Iconoclasm Priests could marry Easter Caesaropapism
Western Europe Rome Latin Support use of icons Priests must remain celibate Christmas Pope They also disagree on: The nature of the Trinity Relative importance of faith and reason
Effects of the Great Schism Rise of Russia Area inhabited by Slavs Vikings arrive using river system Set up state based on trade & conquest around 9th Century State founded by Rurik Capital at Kiev
People called Rus The Emergence of Kievan Rus' New Patterns of Trade Slavs from Asia Iron working, extend agriculture Mix with earlier populations Family tribes, villages Kingdoms Animistic
New Patterns of Trade 6th, 7th centuries Scandinavian merchants Trade between Byzantines and the North c. 855, monarchy under Rurik Center at Kiev Vladimir I (980-1015) Converts to Orthodoxy
Controls church East European Kingdoms and Slavic Expansion, c. 1000 Russia & Christianity Prince Vladimir converted in 989 Converted for trade, commercial reasons Elites baptized by order of prince, often against will
Served as conduit for spread of Byzantine culture, religion Famous Russian onion domes Cyrillic Alphabet Kievan Rus Third Rome Decentralized government Divided into provinces
Constant strife between boyars and princes Constant threat of nomadic invasion Kievan Decline Decline from 12th century Rival governments Succession struggles Asian conquerors
Mongols (Tartars) 13th century, take territory Traditional culture survives Palace Intrigues 1453Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks Disease Why Byzantium Fell
Street Riots The rise of Islam The Crusades Fall of Byzantine Ottoman Turks conquered 1453 Song
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