Building Energy Codes Program Commercial Program Review

Building Energy Codes Program Commercial Program Review

BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM Residential Provisions of the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code BUILDING ENERGY CODES PNNL-SA-132655 www.energycodes.gov Why care about IECC? Energy codes and standards set minimum efficiency requirements for new and renovated buildings, assuring reductions in energy use and emissions over the life of the building. Energy codes are a subset of building codes, which establish baseline requirements and govern building construction. Code buildings are more comfortable and cost-effective to operate, assuring energy, economic and environmental benefits. BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov

The Family of I-Codes International Building Code International Mechanical Code International Fuel Gas Code International Property Maintenance Code International Fire Code International Zoning Code International Plumbing Code International Existing Building Code International Private Sewage Disposal Code International Performance Code International Residential Code International Energy Conservation Code International Wildlife-Urban Interface Code BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Relationship Between IRC & IECC IECC addresses only energy IRC addresses all topics (structural, plumbing, etc.)

Allows builder to carry only one code book Chapter 11 covers energy efficiency As of 2015, IECC consolidated with IRC energy chapter (actually a change to the IRC, not the IECC). IECC addresses both residential and commercial; IRC VS addresses subset of residential, detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses 3 stories or fewer BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Structure of the 2018 IECC Commercial Residential Section

Section Ch. 1 Scope and Application / Administrative and Enforcement Ch. 2 Definitions Ch. 3 General Requirements Ch. 4 Commercial Energy Efficiency Ch. 5 Existing Buildings Ch. 6 Referenced Standards Index BUILDING ENERGY CODES Ch. 1 Scope and Application / Administrative and Enforcement Ch. 2 Definitions Ch. 3 General Requirements Ch. 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Ch. 5 Existing Buildings Ch. 6 Referenced Standards

Index www.energycodes.gov Scope Section R101 Residential Buildings: One- and two-family dwellings, townhouses of any size and R-2, R-3, R-4 3 stories All buildings that are not residential by definition are commercial BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Scope Section R101.4.1 - Mixed Residential and Commercial Buildings Section R101.5 - Compliance

Treat the residential building portion under the applicable residential code Treat the commercial building portion under the commercial code Code Official has final authority Compliance materials, software, worksheets BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Scope Section R102.1 Alternative Materials, Design, and Methods of Construction and Equipment The code is not intended to prevent installation of any material or prohibit design or method of construction that is not specifically prescribed in this code Such material, equipment, or design shall be approved by the code official If code official doesnt approve, will state reasons in writing

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Scope/Construction Documents Section R103 Documentation shall be prepared by a registered design professional (where required) Electronic media can be used Information required: Insulation materials and R-values Fenestration U-factors, SHGC Area-weighted U-factor and SHGC calculations Mechanical, SWH, equipment types, sizes, and efficiencies Equipment and system controls Duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location Air sealing details BUILDING ENERGY CODES

The building thermal envelope shall be represented www.energycodes.gov Scope Section R104-R109 Fees, R104 Inspections, R105 Work remains visible and accessible for inspection Code Validity, R106 Portions of code deemed to be illegal or void shall not affect the remainder of the code Referenced codes and standards, R107 Considered part of the requirements of the code, but IECC provisions take precedence Stop Work Order, R108

Authority of code official Failure to Comply subject to fine Board of Appeals, R109 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Inspections Section R105 Construction work for which a permit is required is subject to inspection by code official or designated agent Required inspections include: Footing and foundation

Framing and rough-in Plumbing rough-in Mechanical rough-in Final BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Referenced Codes and Standards Section R107.1 Codes and standards listed in Chapter 5 are considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sections R107.1.1 and R107.1.2 Conflicts, R107.1.1 where differences occur between this code and the referenced codes and standards, provisions of this code apply Provisions in reference codes and standards, R107.1.2 where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable,

shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Certificate Section R401.3 Permanently posted on a wall in the space where the furnace is located, a utility room or an approved location inside the building Dont cover or obstruct the visibility of other required labels Includes the following: R-values of insulation installed for the thermal building envelope, including ducts outside conditioned spaces U-factors and SHGC for fenestration Area-weighted U-factor and SHGC calculations Results from any required duct system and building envelope air leakage testing HVAC efficiencies and types SWH equipment Duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location

Air sealing details BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Certificate (contd) Certificate indicates gas-fired unvented room heater, electric furnace, or baseboard electric heater, rather than indicating an efficiency for those heating types BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Overview of Structure Climate-Specific Requirements: Roofs Above grade walls Foundations Basements Slabs

Crawlspaces Skylights, windows, and doors Solar Heat Gain Coefficient in warm climates Mandatory Requirements (apply everywhere): Infiltration control Duct insulation, sealing & testing, no use of building cavities HVAC controls Piping Insulation and circulating service hot water requirements Equipment sizing Dampers Lighting BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Compliance IECC Terminology Prescriptive Required but can be lessened or eliminated in trade for compensating improvements elsewhere

Mandatory Required and cannot be traded down, even in the simulated performance path or Energy Rating Index path Note: Unlike simulated performance path, ERI path is not directly based on the prescriptive requirements Some elements have hard limits aka, trade-off limits or "backstops" a prescriptive requirement that can only be traded so far components can only be traded so far when complying with the performance requirements or ERI path BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Climate Zones IECC Terminology "Climate Zone" has two components Eight temperature-oriented zones (1-8) Three named moisture regimes (moist, dry, marine) Theoretically 8x3=24 distinct zones, but only 15 occur in U.S.

Two additional climate specifications influence requirements Warm-Humid line delineates counties that are warm-humid as defined by ASHRAE, with exceptions (affects only bsmt reqm'ts) The "Tropical Climate Zone" (not a separate zone) defines areas in which simplified/relaxed requirements apply under some conditions Climate Zones in the U.S. are entirely geographical Defined along state/county lines International locations defined by local climate data (mean Temp, precipitation, humidity, etc.) BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Climate Zones for the 2018 IECC BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Overview of Residential Code

Requirements Focus is on building envelope Ceilings, walls, windows, floors, foundations Sets insulation and fenestration levels, and solar heat gain coefficients Infiltration control - caulk and seal to prevent air leaks, and test Ducts, air handlers, filter boxes seal, insulate, and test Limited space heating, air conditioning, and water heating requirements Federal law sets most equipment efficiency requirements, not the I-codes No appliance requirements Lighting equipment 90% of lamps to be high-efficacy lamps or 90% of lighting fixtures to have only high-efficacy lamps BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov IECC Compliance Three (or Four or Five) Options

PRESCRIPTIVE PRESCRIPTIVE R-value (no R-value (no tradeoffs) tradeoffs) BUILDING ENERGY CODES U-factor (tradeoffs U-factor within(tradeoffs individual within individual components)

components) UA (tradeoffs between UA (tradeoffs envelope between envelope components) components) SIMULATED SIMULATED PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE ENERGY ENERGY RATING INDEX RATING(ERI) INDEX (ERI) Simulated

Simulated Performance Performance Alternative Alternative R405 (keyed to R405 (keyed to Prescriptive Prescriptive requirements) requirements) ERI ERI Compliance Compliance Alternative Alternative R406 (largely R406 (largely of independent

independent of prescriptive prescriptive requirements) requirements) www.energycodes.gov IECC Compliance Three (or Four or Five or Six) Options PRESCRIPTIVE PRESCRIPTIVE R-value (no R-value (no tradeoffs) tradeoffs)

U-factor (tradeoffs U-factor within(tradeoffs individual within individual components) components) UA (tradeoffs between UA (tradeoffs envelope between envelope components) components) SIMULATED SIMULATED PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE

ENERGY ENERGY RATING INDEX RATING(ERI) INDEX (ERI) Simulated Simulated Performance Performance Alternative Alternative R405 (keyed to R405 (keyed to Prescriptive Prescriptive requirements) requirements) ERI

ERI Compliance Compliance Alternative Alternative R406 (largely R406 (largely of independent independent of prescriptive prescriptive requirements) requirements) Log homes comply if envelope designed in accordance with ICC 400 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Building Envelope Specific Requirements

Building Thermal Envelope consists of: Fenestration Ceilings Walls Above grade Below grade Mass walls Floors Slabs Crawlspaces attic Conditioned Space Exceptions: Low energy usage < 3.4 Btu/h/sq.ft. OR 1 watt/sq.ft. of floor area OR unconditioned spaces OR log homes designed in accordance with ICC 400 BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Insulation and Fenestration Requirements by Climate Zone 23 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Tropical Zone Section R401.2.1 Buildings deemed to comply at elevation < 2,400 feet above sea level where the following conditions are met: < space is air conditioned Occupied space is not heated > 80% solar, wind, or other renewable energy source supplies service water heating SHGC on fenestration < 0.40 or overhang projection factor > 0.30 Lighting in accordance with R404 Exterior roof complies with Table C402.2.11 (commercial cool

roof) or insulation of > R-15, if present, attics above insulation are vented and attics below insulation unvented Roof surface slope of not less than unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (i.e., 1/48 or 2.1% [code says 21%]) BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Tropical Zone Section R401.2.1 Continued Operable fenestration provides ventilation of not less than 14% of floor area for each room or equivalent ventilation is provided by a ventilation fan Bedrooms with 2 exterior walls facing different directions have operable fenestration Interior doors to bedrooms capable of being secured open Ceiling fan or rough-in provided for bedrooms and the largest space that is not used as a bedroom BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Fenestration Sections R303.1.3/R402.3 Doors and windows NFRC rating or default table If no labeled U-factor and SHGC, use default table No glass area limits Exemptions Not greater than15 ft2 of glazing per dwelling unit (Section R402.3.3) One side-hinged opaque door assembly not greater than 24 ft2 (Section R402.3.4) BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Skylights Section R402.3 Meet U-factor

Meet SHGC BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Fenestration Sections R402.3.1/R402.3.2 - Area-weighted Average Can be used to satisfy U-factor and SHGC requirements Subject to hard limits, even in trade-offs BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Fenestration Section R402.3.2 Dynamic Glazing Dynamic glazing Ratio of higher to lower labeled SHGC > 2.4 Automatically controlled to modulate amount of solar gain into space in multiple steps

Shall be considered separately from other fenestration (area weighted average) Exception not required to comply when both high and low rated SHGC meet Table R402.1.2 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Building Envelope Specific Requirements Building Envelope consists of: Fenestration Ceilings Walls Above grade Below grade Mass walls Floors Slabs Crawlspaces

BUILDING ENERGY CODES attic Conditioned Space www.energycodes.gov Ceilings Section R303.1 R-values are to be printed on the batt insulation or rigid foam board. Blown-in insulation must have an insulation certificate at or near the opening of the attic. The certificate should include: R-value of installed thickness Initial installed thickness Installed density Settled thickness/settled R-value Coverage area Number of bags installed Insulation markers must be installed every 300 square feet and be marked with the minimum installed thickness and affixed to the trusses or joists.

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Ceilings Requirements based on Assembly type Continuous insulation Insulation between framing (cavity insulation) Meet or exceed R-values BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Ceilings with Attics Section R402.2.1 Ceiling insulation requirements in R-value table assume standard truss systems

Possibility of ice dam formations Insulation Insulation BUILDING ENERGY CODES Cold corners contribute to condensation and mold growth in some locations www.energycodes.gov Ceilings with Attics, Contd. Section R402.2.1 Insulation at full thickness over exterior walls

Insulation Insulation Prescriptive R-value path encourages raised heel truss (aka, energy truss) If insulation is full height uncompressed over exterior wall top plate, covering 100% of ceiling area R-30 complies where R-38 is required R-38 complies where R-49 is required Note: This reduction ONLY applies to the R-value prescriptive path, not the U-factor or Total UA alternatives BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Ceilings without Attic Spaces Section R402.2.2 - (e.g., vaulted) If insulation is full height uncompressed over exterior

wall top plate R-30 allowed for up to 500 ft2 or 20% total insulated ceiling area, whichever is less, where Required insulation levels exceed R-30 Design of roof/ceiling assembly does not provide sufficient amount of space to meet higher levels Note: This reduction ONLY applies to the R-value prescriptive path, not the U-factor or Total UA alternatives BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Eave Baffle Section R402.2.3 For air permeable insulations in vented attics, a baffle shall be installed Adjacent to soffit and eave vents To maintain an opening size of vent To extend over top of attic insulation May be of any solid material

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Steel-Frame Ceilings Section R402.2.6 Table R402.2.6 Steel-Frame Ceiling, Wall and Floor Insulation (R-Value) Table keys on the woodframe requirement for the corresponding building component R-X + R-Y means RX cavity plus R-Y continuous In ceilings, insulation that exceeds the height of the framing must cover the framing BUILDING ENERGY CODES

Wood Frame R-value Requirement Cold-Formed Steel Equivalent R-valuea Steel Truss Ceilingsb R-30 R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5 R-38 R-49 or R-38 + 3 R-49 R-38 + 5 Steel Joist Ceilingsb R-30 R-38 in 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8

R-49 in any framing R-38 R-49 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8, or 2x10 Steel Framed Wall, 16 inches on center R-13 R-13+3 R-13 + 4.2 or R-21 +2.8, or R-0+9.3 or R-15+R-3.8 or R-21 + 3.1 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 +6.1, or R-15 +5.7 or R-19+5.0 or R-21+4.7 www.energycodes.gov Access Hatches and Doors Section R402.2.4 - Prescriptive Weatherstrip and insulate doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) Insulate to level equivalent to surrounding surfaces e.g., required ceiling insulation = R-38, then attic hatch must be insulated to R-38

Provide access to all equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation Install a wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer when loose fill insulation is installed Exception: Vertical doors that provide access can meet Table R402.1.2 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Building Envelope Specific Requirements Building Envelope consists of: Fenestration Ceilings Walls Above grade Below grade

Mass walls Fenestration Floors Slabs Crawlspaces BUILDING ENERGY CODES attic Conditioned Space www.energycodes.gov Walls Covered by IECC Exterior above-grade walls Attic kneewalls Skylight shaft walls Perimeter joists Basement walls Garage walls (shared with conditioned space)

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Above Grade Walls Insulate walls including those next to unconditioned spaces Dont forget to insulate rim joists BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Wood-Frame Walls Section R402 Table R402.1.2 INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT CLIMATE ZONE

WOOD FRAME WALL R-VALUE 1 13 2 13 3 20 or 13+5h 4 except Marine 20 or 13+5h

5 and Marine 4 20 or 13+5h 6 20+5 or 13+10h 7 and 8 20+5 or 13+10h h. First value is cavity insulation, second is continuous insulation so. Therefore, as an example, 13+5 means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 continuous insulation BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Walls Insulated Siding Section R303.1

R-value labeled on product package Indicated on certification Installer signature and date Posted on site in conspicuous location Thermal resistance (R-value) determined in accordance with ASTM C 1363 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Steel-Frame Walls Section R402.2.6 Table R402.2.6 Steel-Frame Ceiling, Wall and Floor Insulation (R-Value) Wood Frame R-value

Requirement Cold-Formed Steel Equivalent R-valuea Steel Truss Ceilingsb R-30 R-X + R-Y R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5 means R-X R-49 R-38 + 5 cavity plus RSteel Joist Ceilings Table keys on the woodframe R-30 requirement for the R-38 in 2x4, or 2x6, orY2x8continuous R-38 R-49 or R-38 + 3

b corresponding building component R-38 R-49 any framing R-49 2x4, or 2x6, or 2x8, or 2x10 Steel Framed Wall R-13 R-13+R-3 BUILDING ENERGY CODES R-13 + 4.2 or R-19 +2.1, or R-21 +2.8 or R-0+9.3 or R-15+R-3.8 or R-21 + 3.1 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 +6.1, or R-15 +5.7 or R-19+5.0 or R-21+4.7 www.energycodes.gov

Mass Walls Section R402.2.5 What type Concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form (ICF), masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth, and solid timber/logs Any other walls having a heat capacity >6 Btu/ft.2/F Provisions Are assumed to be above grade walls BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Mass Wall Requirements Section R402.2.5 Table R402.1.2 INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT CLIMATE ZONE

MASS WALL R-VALUEi 1 3/4 2 4/6 3 8/13 4 except Marine 8/13

5 and Marine 4 13/17 6 15/20 7 and 8 19/21 BUILDING ENERGY CODES Second (higher) number applies when more than half the R-value is on the interior of the mass (i.e., when the thermal mass is insulated from the conditioned space) www.energycodes.gov

Walls with Partial Structural Sheathing Section R402.2.7 If structural sheathing covers <40% of gross wall area The continuous insulation R-value can be reduced by as much as R-3 if necessary to result in a consistent total sheathing thickness on areas of walls covered by structural sheathing This reduction does not apply to the U-factor alternative or Total UA alternative BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Building Envelope Specific Requirements Building Envelope consists of: Fenestration Ceilings Walls

Above grade Below grade Mass walls Floors Slabs Crawlspaces BUILDING ENERGY CODES attic Conditioned Space www.energycodes.gov Floors Over Unconditioned Space Section R402.2.8 Table R402.1.2 INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT CLIMATE ZONE

1 13 2 13 3 19 4 except Marine 19 5 and Exception: If framing members Marine 4

are too small to accommodate 6 R-30, insulation that fills the 7 and 8 framing cavity, not less than R-19, complies BUILDING ENERGY CODES FLOOR R-VALUE 30g 30g 38g www.energycodes.gov Floors (Over Unconditioned Space) Section 402.2.8 Unconditioned space includes unheated basement, vented crawlspace, or outdoor air Climate Zones

R-Value 1-2 13 3-4ab 19 4c-6 30* 7-8 38* Exception: cavity insulation in contact with the topside of sheathing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom of floor framing where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds

Table R402.1.2 requirements for wood frame walls and that extends from bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members Insulation must maintain permanent contact with underside of subfloor * Exception Climate Zones 4c-8 R-19 permitted if cavity completely filled BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Steel-Frame Floors Section R402.2.6 Table R402.2.6 Steel-Frame Ceiling, Wall and Floor Insulation (R-Value) Table keys on the woodframe requirement for the corresponding building

component Wood Frame R-value Requirement Cold-Formed Steel-Frame Equivalent R-valuea Steel Joist Floorb R-13 R-19 in 2x6, or R-19 + 6 in 2x8 or 2x10 R-19 R-19 + 6 in 2x6, or R-19 + 12 in 2x8 or 2x10 R-X + R-Y means R-X cavity plus R-Y continuous BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Defining Below-Grade Walls Basement Wall >50% below grade Below grade Basement wall BUILDING ENERGY CODES Exterior Wall <50% below grade www.energycodes.gov Below-Grade Walls 50% below grade Otherwise treat as above-grade wall Climate Zones R-Value

1-2 0 3 5/13 4ab 10/13 4c-8 15/19 Insulated from top of basement wall down to 10 ft below grade or basement floor, whichever is less BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Basement Walls Section R402.2.9 Table R402.1.2 INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT FLOOR R-VALUE BASEMENTc WALL R-VALUE 1 13 0 2 13

0 3 19 5/13f 19 10/13 CLIMATE ZONE 4 except

Marine R-X continuous X/Y means or R-Y 5 and cavity 30g Marine 4 15/19 requirement can be met with 6 30g R-13 cavity (interior) plus R-5 continuous (exterior) 7 and 8 38g In zone 3, no insulation required in warm-humid counties (footnote f) BUILDING ENERGY CODES

15/19 15/19 15/19 www.energycodes.gov Building Envelope Specific Requirements Building Envelope consists of: Fenestration Ceilings Walls Above grade Below grade Mass walls Floors Slabs Crawlspaces BUILDING ENERGY CODES attic

Conditioned Space www.energycodes.gov Slab Edge Insulation Section R402.2.10 Applies to slabs with a floor surface < 12 inches below grade R-10 (typically 2 inches) insulation in Zones 4 and above Must extend downward from top of slab a minimum of 24 (Zones 4 and 5) or 48 (Zones 6, 7, and 8) Insulation can be vertical or extend horizontally under the slab or out from the building Insulation extending outward must be under 10 inches of soil or pavement An additional R-5 is required for heated slabs Insulation to depth of the footing or 2 feet, whichever is less in Zones 1-3 for heated slabs BUILDING ENERGY CODES

Flashing Protection Board Figure 2 Slab Rigid Insulation Figure 3 Slab Rigid Insulation Figure 4 Slab Rigid Insulation www.energycodes.gov Slab Edge Insulation

Section R402.2.10 Bevel Cut Slab Rigid Insulation BUILDING ENERGY CODES 57 www.energycodes.gov Building Envelope Specific Requirements Building Envelope consists of: Fenestration Ceilings Walls Above grade Below grade Mass walls

Floors Slabs Crawlspaces BUILDING ENERGY CODES attic Conditioned Space www.energycodes.gov Crawlspace Wall Insulation Section R402.2.11 Implies an unvented crawlspace (aka, conditioned crawlspace) Space must be mechanically vented or receive minimal supply air (Refer to IRC) Exposed earth must be covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Vented & Unvented Crawlspaces Section R402.2.11 Vented Crawlspace Requirements: Unvented Crawlspace Requirements: The raised floor over the crawlspace must be insulated. A vapor retarder may be required as part of the floor assembly. Ventilation openings must exist that are equal to at least 1 square foot for each 150 square feet of crawlspace area and be placed to provide crossflow (IRC 408.1, may be less if ground vapor retarder is installed). Ducts in crawlspace must be sealed and have R-6 insulation. The crawlspace ground surface must be covered with an approved vapor retarder

(e.g., plastic sheeting). Crawlspace walls must be insulated to the R-value requirements specific for crawlspace walls (IECC Table R402.1.2). Crawlspace wall insulation must extend from the top of the wall to the inside finished grade and then 24 vertically or horizontally. Crawlspaces must be mechanically vented (1 cfm exhaust per 50 square feet) or conditioned (heated and cooled as part of the building envelope). Ducts are inside conditioned space and therefore dont need to be insulated. BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov U-Factor and Total UA Alternatives Section R402.1 U-factor Alternative

Similar to Prescriptive R-Value but uses U-factors instead Allows for innovative or less common construction techniques such as structural insulated panels or advanced framing Allows no trade-offs between building components Total UA Alternative Also uses U-factors in lieu of R-values, but allows trade-offs across all envelope components Primary approach used in REScheck software UA U-factor x area of assembly BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Requirements by Climate Zone U-Factor Table BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Mass Walls

Section R402.2.5 - U-Factor Provisions Apply when wall heat capacity > 6 Btu/ft2/F When more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors BUILDING ENERGY CODES Climate Zones U-Factor Maximum 1 0.197 / 0.170 2 0.165 / 0.140 3

0.098 / 0.120 4 except Marine 0.098 / 0.087 4 Marine and 5 0.082 / 0.065 6 0.060 / 0.057 7 and 8 0.057 / 0.057 www.energycodes.gov Fenestration Trade-off Limits Section R402.5 Hard limits on U-factor in northern U.S. (cannot be

exceeded, even in trade-offs or ERI path) Climate Zones U-Factor Maximum 4-5 0.48 6-8 0.40 U-0.75 for skylights in Zones 4-8 U-factors of individual windows or skylights can be higher if area-weighted average is below these limits. BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Fenestration Trade-off Limits, contd.

Hard limit on Solar Heat Gain Coefficient in southern U.S. (Zones 1-3) SHGC cannot exceed 0.50, even in performance tradeoffs or ERI path SHGCs of individual windows or skylights can be higher if areaweighted average is below this limit. BUILDING ENERGY CODES Solar Heat Gain Coefficient www.energycodes.gov Sunrooms Less stringent insulation R-value and glazing U-factor requirements Sunroom definition: One story structure Glazing area >40% glazing of

gross exterior wall and roof area Separate heating or cooling system or zone Must be thermally isolated (both HVAC and physical separationcloseable doors or windows between sunroom and rest of the house) Can always meet Table R402.1.2 requirements with unlimited glass BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Sunroom Requirements Section R402.2.13 Ceiling Insulation Zones 1-4 R-19 Zones 5-8 R-24

Wall Insulation All zones R-13 Fenestration U-Factor Zones 2-8 0.45 Skylight U-Factor Zones 2-8 BUILDING ENERGY CODES 0.70 www.energycodes.gov Simulated Performance Alternative Section R405

Proposed design to be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference design Specifications for standard reference and proposed design are in Table R504.5.2(1) New in 2018: Allowance for batch sampling of stacked multifamily units BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Simulated Performance Alternative Requires computer software with specified capabilities (local official may approve other tools) Includes both envelope and some systems Equipment treated equally in standard and proposed design Allows greatest flexibility Can trade off tight duct systems Defines compliance based on equivalency of calculated energy cost or source energy

Section R405 specifies ground rules These will generally be hidden in compliance software calculation algorithms Similar ground rules are used in home federal tax credits and ENERGY STAR Home guidelines BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Energy Rating Index Section R406 First included in the 2015 IECC, ERI path differs from the traditional prescriptive and performance paths Unlike the performance path, is not based on the prescriptive requirements Fundamental requirement is a single rating (ERI) based on ANSI/RESNET/ICC 301-2014 Mandatory provisions of the code must be met Exception: Ducts not completely inside the building thermal envelope must be insulated to R-6 or greater

Hard limit: Envelope must meet minimum requirements of the 2009 IECC BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Energy Rating Index (Compliance Alternative) Section R406 Compliance with this method must be completed by an approved third party and documentation including compliance reports must be reviewed by the code official Compliance is demonstrated if the calculated ERI is a defined threshold for the zone in which the building is located BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Energy Rating Index Section R406

Table R406.4 Maximum Energy Rating Index BUILDING ENERGY CODES Climate Zone ERIa 1 57 2 57 3 57 4

62 5 61 6 61 7 58 8 58 www.energycodes.gov Energy Rating Index Section R406

ERI is determined in accordance with ANSI/RESNET/ICC 301-2014 Except for buildings covered by IRC, the ERI Reference Design Ventilation rate is changed from 301's spec: Equation 4-1 Ventilation rate, CFM = (0.01 x total square foot area of house) + [7.5 x (number of bedrooms + 1)] Energy used to recharge or refuel a vehicle used for transportation on roads not on the building site not included in ERI reference design or rated design BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Mandatory Requirements Section R402.4 - Air Leakage Building thermal envelope (Section R402.4.1) Recessed lighting Fenestration Ceiling Chimney

Fireplaces Lights Rooms with Penetrations fuel burning appliances Attic Hatch Window Floor Wiring Exterior Door Foundation Plumbing BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Air Leakage Control

Section R402.4.1 Building thermal envelope BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Building Thermal Envelope Section R402.4.1 Air Leakage Requires BOTH: Whole-house pressure test Air Leakage Rate Climate Zone Test Pressure

5 ACH 1-2 50 Pascals 3 ACH 3-8 50 Pascals Testing may occur any time after creation of all building envelope penetrations Field verification of items listed in Table R402.5.1.1 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Table R402.4.1.1 Component

Air Barrier Criteria Insulation Installation Criteria General requirements A continuous air barrier shall be installed in the building envelope. The exterior thermal envelope contains a continuous air barrier. Breaks or joints in the air barrier shall be sealed. Air-permeable insulation shall not be used as a sealing material. Ceiling/attic The air barrier in any dropped ceiling or soffit shall be aligned with the insulation and any

gaps in the air barrier sealed. Access openings, drop down stair or knee wall doors to unconditioned attic spaces shall be sealed. The insulation in any dropped ceiling/soffit shall be aligned with the air barrier. Walls The junction of the foundation and sill plate shall be sealed. The junction of the top plate and the top of exterior walls shall be sealed. Knee walls shall be sealed. Cavities within corners and headers of frame walls shall be insulated by completely filling the cavity with a material having a thermal resistance R-value of not less than R-3 per inch. Exterior thermal envelope insulation for framed walls shall be installed in substantial contact and continuous alignment with the air barrier.

Windows, skylights and doors The space between framing and skylights and the jambs of windows and doors shall be sealed. (partial table) BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Fireplaces Section R402.4.2 New wood-burning fireplaces shall have tight fitting flue dampers or doors, and outdoor combustion air Tight fitting doors on fireplaces that are: Factory built listed and labeled per UL 127

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Fenestration Air Leakage Section R402.4.3 TYPE AIR INFILTRATION RATE Windows, sliding glass doors, and skylights 0.3 cfm/ft2 Swinging doors 0.5 cfm/ft2 Exceptions Site-built windows, skylights, and doors

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Rooms with fuel burning appliances Section R402.4.4 Climate Zones 3-8 Open combustion fuel burning appliances where open combustion air ducts provide combustion air The appliances and combustion air opening shall be located outside the building thermal envelope OR Enclosed in a room isolated from inside the thermal envelope Sealed and insulated per Table R402.1.2 Door gasketed and sealed Any ducts or water lines insulated per R403 Combustion air duct insulated to an R-value of not less than R-8 where it passes through conditioned space Exceptions: Direct vent appliances with both intake and exhaust pipes installed continuous to outside Fireplaces and stoves complying with R402.4.2 and Section R1006IRC

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Recessed Lighting Fixtures Section R402.4.5 Type IC rated and labeled as meeting ASTM E 283 when tested at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential with no more than 2.0 cfm of air movement Sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Mechanical Systems & Equipment Equipment efficiency set by Federal law, not the I-Codes BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Requirements for Systems Section R403 Controls Heat pump supplementary heat Hot water boiler outdoor temperature setback Ducts Sealing (Mandatory) Insulation (Prescriptive) HVAC piping insulation Hot water systems Ventilation Dampers

Equipment sizing Systems serving multiple dwelling units Snow melt controls Pools and in-ground permanently installed spas BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Programmable Thermostat Section R403.1.1 - Controls At least one programmable thermostat controlling the primary heating/cooling per dwelling unit Capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures Not less than 55F (13C) or Not greater than 85F (29C)

Initially programmed by manufacturer with: heating temperature set point not greater than 70F (21C) and cooling temperature set point not less than 78F (26C) BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Heat Pump Supplementary Heat Section R403.1.2 - Controls Prevent supplementary electric-resistance heat when heat pump can meet the heating load Exception During defrost BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov

Hot Water Boiler Outdoor Temp. Setback Section R403.2 One- or two-pipe heating systems must have an outdoor setback control to decrease boiler temperature based on outdoor temperature BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Duct Insulation Section R403.3.1 - Prescriptive Supply and return ducts in attics: R-8 where > 3 diameter, R-6 if < 3 Other areas: R-6 where > 3 diameter, R-4.2 if < 3 Examples Location Duct Diameter >3 or <3 Attic R-8 or R-6 Conditioned Space

NR Vented Crawlspace R-6 or R-4.2 Conditioned Crawlspace NR Basement Conditioned NR Basement Unconditioned R-6 or R-4.2 Exterior Walls R-6 or R-4.2 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Duct Sealing Section R403.3.2 - Mandatory Sealing (Mandatory) Joints and seams to comply with IMC or IRC All ducts, air handlers, and filter boxes to be sealed (Section R403.3.2.1)

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Duct Testing Section R403.3.3 - Mandatory Ducts shall be pressure tested to determine air leakage by either of the following: Rough-in test Total leakage measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the system including manufacturers air handler enclosure All registers taped or otherwise sealed Postconstruction test Total leakage measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system including manufacturers air handler enclosure All registers taped or otherwise sealed Exceptions Duct air leakage test not required where ducts and air handlers are entirely

within the building thermal envelope Test not required for ducts serving heat or energy recovery ventilators not integrated with ducts serving heating or cooling systems A written report of results of test signed by the party conducting test and provided to code official BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Duct Leakage Section R403.3.4 - Prescriptive Total leakage of ducts, where measured in accordance with Section 403.3.3 shall be as follows: Rough-in test Total leakage 4 cfm/per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area if air handler not installed at time of test Total air leakage 3 cfm/per 100 ft2

Postconstruction test Total leakage 4 cfm/per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Duct Tightness Tests Section R403.3.3 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Sealed Air Handler Section R403.3.2.1 - Mandatory Air handlers to have a manufacturers designation for an air leakage of 2% of design air flow rate per ASHRAE 193 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov

Building Cavities Section R403.3.5 - Mandatory Framing cavities cannot be used as ducts or plenums BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Ducts Buried within Ceiling Insulation Prior to 2018, the IECC did not prohibit buried ducts, but neither did it define the practice or make specific allowance for it. The new provisions: 1. Define buried-duct practices that are explicitly allowed 2. Provide a means to characterize the performance of a buried duct system as an equivalent duct insulation Rvalue 3. Allow simplified credit for buried ducts in the performance path Buried duct system may be considered inside conditioned space if certain requirements are met

94 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Ducts Buried within Ceiling Insulation Section R403.3.6 Where supply and return air ducts are partially or completely buried in ceiling insulation, such ducts shall comply with all of the following: 1. The supply and return ducts shall have an insulation R-value not less than R-8. 2. At all points along each duct, the sum of the ceiling insulation R-value against and above the top of the duct, and against and below the bottom of the duct, shall be not less than R-19, excluding the R-value of the duct

insulation. 3. In Climate Zones 1A, 2A and 3A, the supply ducts shall be completely buried within ceiling insulation, insulated to an R-value of not less than R-13 and in compliance with the vapor retarder requirements of Section 604.11 of the International Mechanical Code or Section M1601.4.6 of the International Residential Code, as applicable. Exception: Sections of the supply duct that are less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the supply outlet shall not be required to comply with these requirements. 95 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Effective R-value of Deeply Buried Ducts Section R403.3.6.1 Where using a simulated energy performance analysis, sections of ducts that are:

installed in accordance with Section R403.3.6 located directly on, or within 5.5 inches (140 mm) of the ceiling surrounded with blown-in attic insulation having an R-value of R-30 or greater located such that the top of the duct is not less than 3.5 inches (89 mm) below the top of the insulation shall be considered as having an effective duct insulation R-value of R-25 96 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Ducts Located in Conditioned Space Section R403.3.7 For simulated performance path, buried ducts may be considered inside conditioned space if: 1. The duct system is actually located completely within the continuous air

barrier and within the building thermal envelope, OR 2. The ducts are buried within ceiling insulation in accordance with Section R403.3.6 and all of the following conditions exist: 2.1. The air handler is located completely within the continuous air barrier and within the building thermal envelope. 2.2. The duct leakage, as measured either by a rough-in test of the ducts or a postconstruction total system leakage test to outside the building thermal envelope in accordance with Section R403.3.4, is less than or equal to 1.5 cubic feet per minute (42.5 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area served by the duct system. 2.3. The ceiling insulation R-value installed against and above the insulated duct is greater than or equal to the proposed ceiling insulation R-value, less the R-value of the insulation on the duct. 97 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Mechanical System Piping Insulation Section R403.4 - Mandatory R-3 required on HVAC systems Exception: Piping that conveys fluids between 55 and 105F

If exposed to weather, protect from damage, including Sunlight Moisture Equipment maintenance Wind Provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of material Adhesive tape is not allowed BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Service Hot Water Systems Section R403.5 Heated water circulation systems Heat trace systems Demand recirculation water systems

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Heated Water Circulation and Temp. Maintenance Systems Section R403.5.1 - Mandatory Heated water circulation systems provided with circulation pump return pipe must be a dedicated return pipe or a cold water supply pipe gravity and thermosyphon circulation systems are prohibited Controls shall start the pump based on identification of the demand for hot water within the occupancy automatically turn off pump when water in the loop is at desired temperature and there is no demand for hot water Automatic controls, temperature sensors, and pumps shall be accessible Manual controls shall be readily accessible

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Heat Trace Systems Section R403.5.1.2 Electric heat trace systems shall comply with IEEE 515.1 or UL 515 Controls shall automatically adjust the energy input to the heat tracing to maintain the desired water temperature in the piping in accordance with the times when heated water is used in the occupancy BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Demand Recirculation Water Systems Section R403.5.2 Demand recirculation water system to have controls that

start pump upon: receiving a signal from action of user of a fixture or appliance sensing the presence of a user of a fixture or sensing the flow of hot or tempered water to a fixture fitting or appliance limit the temperature of water entering cold water pipe to not greater than 104F BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Hot Water Pipe Insulation Section R403.5.3 - Prescriptive R-3 required on Piping in. nominal diameter Piping serving more than one dwelling unit Piping located outside the conditioned space

Image courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy Piping from the water heater to a distribution manifold Piping under a floor slab Buried piping Supply and return piping in recirculating systems other than demand recirculation systems BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Drain Water Heat Recovery Units Section R403.5.4 Comply with CSA B55.2 and tested in accordance with CSA B55.1 Portable water-side pressure loss of drain water hat recovery units shall be < 3 psi for individual units connected to 1 or 2 showers < 2 psi if connected to > 3 showers

BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Mechanical Ventilation Section R403.6 Ventilation Building to have ventilation complying with IRC or IMC or with other approved means Outdoor air intakes and exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating Whole-house mechanical ventilation system fans to meet efficacy in Table R403.6.1 Exception When an air handler integral to tested and listed HVAC equipment is used to provide whole-house mechanical ventilation, the air handler shall be powered by an electronically commutated motor BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov

Equipment Sizing and Efficiency Rating Section R403.7 Equipment Sizing Load calculations determine the proper capacity (size) of equipment Goal is big enough to ensure comfort but no bigger Sizing shall be performed in accordance with ACCA Manual S based on loads calculated in accordance with ACCA Manual J (other approved methods) Efficiency Rating New or replacement heating/cooling equipment shall have an efficacy rating equal to or greater than minimum required by federal law for geographic location of installation BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Snow Melt System Controls

Section R403.9 Snow- and ice-melting system controls Automatic shutoff when pavement temperature is > 50F and precipitation is not falling Automatic or manual shutoff when outdoor temperature is > 40F BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Pools and Permanent Spa Energy Consumption Section R403.10 - Mandatory Pools and spas in accordance with APSP-145 Heaters with a readily accessible on-off switch that is integral part of heater mounted on the exterior of heater or external to within 3 feet of heater Switch shall not change the setting of heater thermostat Switches shall be in addition to the circuit breaker for the power to the heater

fired by natural gas not allowed to have continuously burning pilot lights Time switches (or other control method) to automatically turn off and on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule installed on all heaters and pump motors Note: heaters, pumps, and motors with built-in timers meet the requirement Exceptions Public health standards requiring 24-hour pump operation Pumps operating pools with solar and waste-heat recovery heating systems BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Covers Section R403.10.3 On outdoor heated pools and outdoor permanently installed spas Vapor-retardant cover OR Other approved vapor retarder means Exception: If >75% of energy from on-site renewable

energy system BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Portable Spas Section R403.11 - Mandatory Energy consumption of electric-powered portable spas shall be controlled by the requirements of APSP14 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Systems Section R403.8 Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections C403 and C404 instead of Section R403 BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Lighting Equipment Section R404.1 - Mandatory A minimum of 90 percent of the permanently installed lighting fixtures shall contain only high efficacy lamps BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Lighting Equipment Section R404.1.1 - Mandatory Fuel gas lighting systems may not have continuously burning pilot lights BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov

Existing Buildings Section R501 - General Additions, alterations, or repairs Existing buildings Maintenance Compliance New and replacement materials Buildings designated as historic BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Existing Buildings Section R502 - Additions Additions must meet the prescriptive requirements in Table R402.1.2 or R402.1.4 (R-value computation or U-factor or total UA alternatives) N BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov Existing Buildings Section R502 - Additions Additions comply if any of the following is demonstrated The addition alone complies with the provisions of this code The existing building and addition together comply as a single building The existing building and addition together use no more energy than the existing building BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Existing Buildings Section R503 - Alterations Code applies to any new construction Unaltered portion(s) do not need to comply (R503.1.1.1) Replacement fenestration that

includes both glazing and sash must meet 0.25 SHGC in Climate Zones 1-3 0.40 SHGC in Climate Zone 4 except Marine U-factors in all Climate Zones 1-8 Where more than 1 replacement fenestration unit is to be installed, an area-weighted average Ufactor, SHGC or both of all replacement fenestration units can be an alternative compliance approach. BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Existing Buildings Section R503 - Alterations Building Envelope Exceptions: Storm windows over existing fenestration Surface-applied window film installed on existing single pane Exposed, existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities if already filled with insulation Where existing roof, wall or floor cavity isnt exposed Roof recover Roofs without cavity insulation and neither sheathing nor insulation is exposed

during the reroofing Insulate either above or below the sheathing Lighting Exceptions: <50% of luminaries in a space are replaced Only bulbs and ballasts within existing luminaries are replaced (provided installed interior lighting power isnt increased) BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Existing Buildings Section R503 - Alterations Heating and Cooling New HVAC systems and duct systems that are part of the alteration to comply with Section 403 Exception: Where duct from on existing HVAC system are extended, duct systems with < 40 linear feet in unconditioned spaces are not required to be tested in accordance with Section R403.3.3 Service hot water (SHW) systems

New SHW systems that are part of the alteration to comply with R403.5 BUILDING ENERGY CODES www.energycodes.gov Existing Buildings Section R504 - Repairs Work on nondamaged components necessary for the required repair or damaged components shall be considered part of the repair and are not subject to the alterations requirements Repairs considered part of the code Glass-only replacements in an existing sash and frame Roof repairs Repairs where only the bulb, ballast or both within the existing luminaires in a space are replaced provided the replacement does not increase the installed interior lighting power BUILDING ENERGY CODES

www.energycodes.gov

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