Big Idea #2

Big Idea #2

BIG IDEA #2 Properties of Matter Source Properties Based on Bonding Video 1 Video 2 Video 3 Video 4 Visit the Virtual Lab to explore properties based on bond type (click on perform) Not all ionic compounds are soluble, but those containing ammonium, nitrate, alkali metals, and halogens (except bonded to Ag, Hg and Pb) are typically LO 2.1: Students can predict properties of substances based on their chemical formulas, and provide explanations of their properties based on particle views

+ Oxyacid Strength Binary Acid Strength Source Reading The increased number of oxygen atoms pulls negative charge away from the O-H bond, weakening the attraction of the proton for the electron pair and thus strengthening the acid. LO 2.2:

student is able to explain the relative strengths of acids and bases based on structure, IMFs, & equilibrium. The greater the size of the negative ion, the weaker its attraction for the proton, and so the stronger the acid, and the weaker the conjugate base. HI is the strongest binary acid. Source

+ Behaviors of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Video 1 Video 2 LO 2.3: The student is able to use particulate models to reason about observed differences between solid and liquid phases and among solid and liquid materials. Source + Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)

Video 1 Video 2 IF the temperature is not changed, no matter what else is listed in the problem, the average kinetic energy of a gas does not change. That is the definition of temperature! All gases begin to act non-ideally (aka real) when they are at low temperatures and/or high pressures because these conditions increase particle interactions Under the same conditions, the stronger the intermolecular attractions between gas particles, the LESS ideal the behavior of the gas LO 2.4: The student is able to use KMT and IMFs to make predictions about the macroscopic properties of gases, including both ideal and non-ideal behaviors Source

+ Properties of a Gas - Factors Dont worry about individual gas law names, but do worry about the effect of changing moles, pressure and temperature on a sample of gas Virtual Lab LO 2.5: Refine multiple representations of a sample of matter in the gas phase to accurately represent the effect of changes in macroscopic properties on the sample Source +

The Ideal Gas Law Video LO 2.6: The student can apply mathematical relationships or estimation to determine macroscopic variables for ideal gases Click reveals answer and explanation. Source Chromatography Video LO 2.7: The student is able to explain how solutes can be separated by chromatography based

on intermolecular interactions. Source Dissolving/Dissociation: Solute and Solvent Video When drawing solute ions: 1. pay attention to size (Na+ is smaller than Cl-) 2. Draw charges on ion, but not on water 3. draw at least 3 water molecules around each 4. the negative dipole (oxygen side) points toward cation and the postive dipoles (H side) points towards the anion

LO 2.8: The student can draw and/or interpret representations of solutions that show the interactions between the solute and solvent. Source + Molarity and Particle Views Video QUESTION: Rank the six solutions above in order of increasing molarity. Pay attention to volume, and some have equal concentration C,D, and E (tied); A and F (tied); most concentrated is B Click reveals answer

LO 2.9: The student is able to create or interpret representations that link the concept of molarity with particle views of solutions Source + Distillation to Separate Solutions Video In the diagram above, ethanol has lower IMFs and a resulting lower boiling point than water, so it can be heated, vaporized and condensed easily. Ethanol hydrogen bonds as water does and is polar, but part of the ethanol has only weaker LDFs because its nonpolar resulting in a lower boiling point

LO 2.10: Design/interpret the results of filtration, paper/column chromatography, or distillation in terms of the relative strength of interactions among the components. Source + London Dispersion Forces and Noble and Nonpolar Gases This answer is VITAL! Remember with increased number of ELECTRONS a particle becomes more polarizable, not with increased mass! Video Click reveals answer and explanation.

LO 2.11: The student is able to explain the trends in properties/predict properties of samples consisting of particles with no permanent dipole on the basis of LDFs. Source + Deviations from Ideal Gas Behavior Video When watching the video, dont concern yourself with Van der Walls AP Exam focuses on LDFs instead Click reveals answer and explanation.

LO 2.12: The student can qualitatively analyze data regarding real gases to identify deviations from ideal behavior and relate these to molecular interactions Source +Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen Bonding is seen in the following molecules: water, DNA, ammonia, HF, and alcohols. H-bonding is an attraction or force not a true intramolecular bond. Hydrogen bonds are like a sandwich with N, O, and/or F as the bread. H will be in a intramolecular (same molecule) bond with one N, O, and/or F and have an intermolecular attraction (different molecule) with the other. Video Remember this tip:

hydrogen bonds just wanna have FON LO 2.13: The student is able to describe the relationships between the structural features of polar molecules and the forces of attraction between the particles. Source + Coulombs Law and Solubility Ionic compounds can dissolve in polar liquids like water because the ions are attracted to either the positive or negative part of the molecule. There is a sort of tug-of-war involved with species dissolved in water. The water pulls

individual ions away from the solid. The solid is pulling individual ions back out of the water. There exists an equilibrium based on how strongly the water attracts the Video ions, versus how strong the ionic solid attracts the ions. We can predict the degree of solubility in water for different ionic compounds using Coulomb's law. The smaller the ions, the closer together they are, and the harder it is for the water molecules to pull the ions away from each other. The greater the charge of the ions, the harder it is for the water to pull them away as well. QUESTION: Predict which of the following pairs should be more soluble in water, based on Coulombic attraction. LiF or NaF

NaF or KF BeO or LiF LO 2.14: Apply Coulombs law to describe the interactions of ions, & the attractions of ions/solvents to explain the factors that contribute to solubility of ionic compounds. Source + Entropy in Solutions Video Generally speaking. There are exceptions

Do NOT say like dissolves like. Youll, like... get no points. DO refer to LDFs , hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole interactions LO 2.15: Explain observations of the solubility of ionic solids/molecules in water and other solven on the basis of particle views that include IMFs and entropic effects. Source Physical Properties and IMFs Video

Hg Click reveals answer and explanation. LO 2.16: Explain the properties (phase, vapor pressure, viscosity, etc.) of small and large molecular compounds in terms of the strengths and types of IMFs. Source Bonding and Electronegativity Differences in electronegativities lead to different types of bonding*: 0.0 0.4: Bond is generally considered nonpolar 0.5 1.7: Bond is generally considered polar > 1.7: Bond is generally considered ionic Video Electronegativities are assigned values and are relative to fluorine. Electronegativity is a function of shielding / effective nuclear charge.

*Values presented are one possibility other scales exist. LO 2.17: The student can predict the type of bonding present between two atoms in a binary compound based on position in the periodic table and the electronegativity of the elements. Source Ranking Bond Polarity Video LO 2.18: The student is able to rank and justify the on the ranking of bond polarity on the basis of the locations of the bonded atoms in the periodic table. Source Ionic Substances and their Properties Ionic compounds are brittle. As the crystal structure is struck, the ions become displaced.

The displaced ions will repel like charges and fracture. Video LO 2.19: The student can create visual representations of ionic substances that connect the microscopic structure to macroscopic properties and/or use representations to connect microscopic structure to macroscopic properties (e.g., boiling point, solubility, hardness, brittleness, low volatility, lack of malleability, ductility, or conductivity). Source + Metallic Properties Sea of Electrons Video The metallic bond is not the easiest type of bond to understand, so an analogy may help. Imagine filling your bathtub with golf balls. Fill it right up to the top. The golf balls will arrange themselves in an orderly

fashion as they fill the space in the tub. Do you see any spaces between the balls? If you turn on the faucet and plug the drain, the water will fill up those spaces. What you now have is something like metallic bonding. The golf balls are the metal kernals, and the water represents the valence electrons shared by all of the atoms. LO 2.20: The student is able to explain how a bonding model involving delocalized electrons is consistent with macroscopic properties of metals (e.g., conductivity, malleability, ductility, and low volatility) and the shell model of the atom. Source + Lewis Diagrams / VSEPR Video LO 2.21: The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the geometry of molecules, identify hybridization,

and make predictions about polarity. Great Lab Example + As the type of particles and forced of attraction in ionic and covalent compounds differ, their properties also differ! Ionic or Covalent? Bonding Tests Properties Ionic Compounds

Covalent Compounds Melting/Boiling Points High Low except for some giant covalent molecules Electrical Conductivity Conduct electricity in molten and in aqueous solution Does not conduct electricity in any state when pure, may conduct in aqueous solution (i.e., acids)

Solubility in water and organic solvents Soluble in water Insoluble in organic solvent Insoluble in water, except for some simple molecule Soluble in organic solvent Volatility Not volatile Highly volatile Click here to do a virtual lab on

bonding type (chart pictured below) Video Source Use properties of compounds to differentiate them from one another. Other tests may be performed to positively identify the compound, but are not necessary to observe types of bonds present. LO 2.22: The student is able to design or evaluate a plan to collect and/or interpret data needed to deduce the type of bonding in a sample of a solid.

Source Crystal Structure of Ionic Compounds Video LO 2.23: The student can create a representation of an ionic solid that shows essential characteristics of the structure and interactions present in the substance. Source Crystal Structure of Ionic Compounds Video The +2 and -2 ions attract each other more strongly than +1 attracts -1. The ions Mg+2 and O-2 are smaller than Na+1 and Cl-1, therefore the ions can get closer together, increasing their electrostatic attractions.

LO 2.24: The student is able to explain a representation that connects properties of an ionic solid to its structural attributes and to the interactions present at the atomic level. Source + Alloys and their Properties Video LO 2.25: The student is able to compare the properties of metal alloys with their constituent elements to determine if an alloy has formed, identify the type of alloy formed, and explain the differences in properties using particulate level reasoning. Source Alloys! Video

LO 2.26: Students can use the electron sea model of metallic bonding to predict or make claims about macroscopic properties of metals or alloys. Source + Metallic Solids - Characteristics Video LO 2.27: The student can create a representation of a metallic solid that shows essential characteristics of the structure and interactions present in the substance. Source +

Properties of Metallic Solids Video LO 2.28: The student is able to explain a representation that connects properties of a metallic solid to its structural attributes and to the interactions present at the atomic level. Source Covalent Compounds - Interactions Graphite are sheets of carbon atoms bonded together and stacked on top of one another. The interactions between sheets is weak, much like the substance itself.

Video Diamonds carbon atoms are more connected in a three dimensional structure, adding strength to the network. LO 2.29: The student can create a representation of a covalent solid that shows essential characteristics of the structure and interactions present in the substance. Source +

Covalent Solids Video LO 2.30: The student is able to explain a representation that connects properties of a covalent solid to its structural attributes and to the interactions present at the atomic level. + Molecular Compounds - Interactions Water (H2O) Source Iodine (I2) Video Polar Covalent compounds align according to dipole-dipole interactions. Non-Polar Covalent compounds align

according to LDFs as a solid. LO 2.31: The student can create a representation of a molecular solid that shows essential characteristics of the structure and interactions in the substance. Source + Molecular Compound Interactions a. Covalent bonds b. Hydrogen bonds c. Dipole-dipole interactions d. London Dispersion Forces Video LO 2.32: The student is able to explain a representation that connects properties of a molecular solid to its structural

attributes and to the interactions present at the atomic level.

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