Behaviour Analysis and ADHD What behaviour means and its value to the individual Andrew Swartfigure, BCBA Head of the Peartree Centre What do you see?
Our areas tonight Warning- were interactive tonight! Relevance of ADHD Behaviour Functions Case study- a chance to analyse behaviour Value
Translation Does ADHD matter? Short answer Long answer we are all human and live in and experience the environment just differently; Perhaps its just the needs we need to address
Behaviour Everything that we do The ends are justified What about the means? General approach
What do you do if you think child is trying to gain attention (inappropriately)? Factors to consider: (in groups) Where is the child when they are trying to get attention? Is gaining attention ok? How does the child gain attention? What other ways can they gain attention?
What capacity is the child operating at: where is their rev counter? Functions Brian Iwata Sensory Escape Attention
Tangible Just ADHD or other SEN? These are the top level functions for all of us A quick note Reinforcement: defined as increasing the likelihood a behaviour will
happen again in the future Case study: Sam Profile: 8 years old, been in mainstream education since Reception class, hitting peers and rule breaking started at beginning of academic year AR report and the STAR documents are indicative of a possible ADHD profile
Impulsive behaviour incidents, poor reaction to a competitive situation The consequences of his behaviour seem to get him access to 1:1 attention Intervention- best intention Currently attends a social skills group twice a week, he is the most attentive and participates more than the other children Children discuss 8 rules of appropriate play and cooperation
Children explore how does my engine run Children participate in Social Detectives programme and yet Increased incidents of aggressive play Increased incidents of rule breaking in the playground Regular withdrawal from the playground, considered time out: TA takes him into the classroom
Why are things increasing? (groups) An appropriate intervention Self Management strategies Behaviour and its Value Matching Law
B1= V1 B2= V2 Your turn Based on what we know and in groups: Discuss a strategy you could use considering Value of Behaviour and reinforcement
Key questions I am going to ask you: How? Why? Intervention related to function- a behavioural contract Proactive: establish a set of abridged, 3-4 rules or contract with Sam
that he follows during playtimes (these should relate to the Intervention group content if relevant) Rules are clearly observable behaviours e.g. use your words to tell your friends if they are upsetting you rather than play nicely with your friends Establish with him what he will get/ have access to if he holds up his end of the contract e.g. time alone for five minutes, time on a
computer etc. It must directly follow a successful playtime - every time Doesnt quite make it Necessarily if he isnt successful then he doesnt access these things, but in each instance after a play time he gets a chance to go through the contract to see if rules have been achieved.
The thing/ activity that he has established pre- playtime are not used as a threat in terms of you wont get it if you hit moreover state the positive behaviours. Hints and tips Establishing the length of the contract is important, you can do this a number of ways:
You could state it is for the whole of play time Staff can think about the average amount of time it takes for him to become likely overwhelmed Set the interval for the contract to be slightly below this time to give the best chance of success He may be able to tell you how long, but bear in mind that if he is competitive this may be overstated.
Translation Impact of ADHD The behaviours he demonstrated are not necessarily in line with the rest of his profile, so their contrast is significant to those around him- however they do represent a need. This need manifest as a lack of coping in busy or competitive environments, where he can broadly function at
capacity but anything additional that he has to cope with can cause him to act impulsively. If you analyse the consequences of his actions, they seem to be escaping from these situations and or access to a 1:1 staff. Neither of these are inappropriate, yet his means are the crux of the matter. Speculatively: if you look at his ability to articulate and or access the content of the Intervention time, there was an obvious contrast i.e. in a safe, structured environment that is adult led, his capacity was not so full and therefore he is capable of demonstrating and talking about the right things to do etc. In other words he may be able to deal with a structured literal environment but when boundaries are unknown or the reaction or interaction with his peers is unpredictable he may be overwhelmed.
In summary Intervention with the best intention vs. functional assessment This is only one child, with one function, related to one environment Functional assessment is key There is not one size fits all Ask yourself why something is happening; NOT WHAT
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