ATP Supplies the for cellular activities Used rapidly so cells must be constantly creating it Used for:

Active transport Movement of chromosomes Movement of muscles Cilia or flagella etc. Photosynthesis Needed in order for life to survive on Earth Photosynthesizing organisms contain Converted into that trap the Suns energy

energy and stored as sugars and carbohydrates Other products produced by the Suns energy are oxygen, and heat Cellular Respiration Used by plants, animals and other multicellular organisms The break down of energy-rich compounds to release stored energy Broken down inside the

This makes ATP Photosynthesis Chemical reaction Energy from the sun is captured by green plants by the process called photosynthesis (P/S) 5 Photosynthesis - Pigments For light energy to be used by living systems it must first be .

A pigment is any substance that absorbs light. (Some pigments absorb and thus appear . Others absorb light in the violet-blue and the orange-red spectrum and reflect green light.) 6 Photosynthesis - Pigments

Various pigments absorb energy of different wavelengths. (absorption spectrum) 7 Photosynthesis - Pigments All photosynthetic organisms contain Different types of plants use various pigments in P/S. 8

Photosynthesis - Pigments Chlorophyll a ( ) and chlorophyll b ( ) are the most common pigments but most plants also contain a pigment group called (Example: beta-carotene) They absorb photons with energies in the blue-violet and red regions and everything else

9 Chlorophyll a and b Chlorophyll is the only pigment that can sunlight to photosynthesis the energy from Chlorophyll

acts as an accessory pigment helper to misses and transfer the energy absorbed to a There are other compound, carotenoids , are also helper pigments. the photons a Photosynthesis - Pigments In green leaves carotenes are by chlorophyll, thus when chlorophyll production slows in the fall the leaves change color to show the carotenes.

11 Photosynthesis - Chloroplast Chlorophyll pigments and and red wavelengths. Carotenoids absorb violet and blue wavelengths reflecting yellow.

Pigments absorb light of the correct wavelength to excite electrons to a higher energy level 12 Photosynthesis - Plastids Plastids are structures that colour. and give plants their

The most common plastid is the chloroplast in which the chemical reactions of P/S occur. 13 Cellular Respiration Produces energy by the combustion reaction of glucose called cellular respiration. 14

Mitochondrial structure Respiration occurs at the mitochondria Mitochondria is composed of 4 regions: 1. outer membrane - smooth and Freely ; contains enzymes to catabolize fats

15 Mitochondrial structure 2. inner membrane - folded membrane in the mitochondria ( ); made mostly of protein including the enzyme that makes ATP; impermeable to most small molecules and ions 3. Intermembrane space - contains enzymes which use ATP 4. matrix - control region; mixture of proteins including enzymes which oxidize major compounds

16 Metabolic Pathways In a metabolic pathway the product of one reaction is the starting reactant for another The Role of Enzymes

Metabolism refers to the chemical reactions that occur within a cell to support and sustain life functions Can be broken into two distinct types of reactions: 1. Anabolic reactions & pathways subunits and energy 2. Catabolic reactions & pathways smaller pieces and energy molecules from small

large molecules into Energy required to start a reaction is known as Catalysts and enzymes the activation energy Allows the reactions to proceed more rapidly Enzymes are that lower the energy needed to activate biological reactions

Activation Energy Catalyzed vs. Uncatalyzed Reactions Oxidation & Reduction Oxidation is a reaction where an atom or molecule Reduction is a reaction where an atom or molecule Free electrons from oxidation cannot exist on their own

Electrons that are lost through oxidation of one substance cause the of another compound Molecules in their reduced form contain large amounts of energy Adenosine Triphosphate The cell obtains its energy requirements through cellular respiration which is an exothermic reaction manufacturing ATP

23 ATP produces energy by to a phosphate group This produces ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a free phosphate group This process works in

to create more ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consists of: nitrogenous base adenine (1/5 types of nitrogenous bases) an attached sugar. attached to the sugar are 3 phosphate groups The phosphate is bonded by a covalent bond of unusually high energy.

During cellular respiration a to a molecule of to make phosphate group is attached in a process called 25 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP is used to provide the power cell reactions (Energy is

phosphate group) needed to by detaching the terminal 26 Review Cellular respiration is the process by which cells high-energy compounds and generate ATP.

Review The chemical reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in a series of step-by-step reactions called Enzymes are that reduce the amount of startup energy needed for the reactions in the metabolic pathways. In the absence of enzymes, the reactions could not occur at temperatures at which living organisms thrive. Review

When a compound is in a chemical reaction, it electrons. When a compound is in a chemical reaction, it electrons. Compounds contain more chemical energy in their reduced form than they do in their oxidized form. Photosynthesis

Transforms the energy of the sun into chemical energy in glucose, ATP and NADPH Involves over 100 individual chemical reactions that work together These reactions can be summarized in two groups: 1. 2. Light-Dependent Reactions generates high energy compounds ATP

and NADPH Light-Independent Reactions energy of ATP and reducing power NADPH are used to reduce carbon dioxide to make glucose which can then be converted to starch for storage Light Dependent Light Independent 31

Light-Dependent Reactions Requires in order to work During these reactions, the pigments contained inside the absorb light energy Although plants have a number of pigments, the most important for photosynthesis is chlorophyll Photosystems Within the thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and other pigments

are organized into photosystems. Chloroplasts of plants have two photosystems: Each system is made of pigment molecules that include chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules All the pigment molecules in each photosystem can absorb various wavelengths of light energy The various pigment molecules produce free electrons when light hits them

These free electrons are passed along to the ,a specialized chlorophyll a molecule When the electron in the reaction center is by the addition of energy, it passes to the This the electron acceptor and puts it at a high

energy level A summary of the Steps: The light reactions use the solar power of photons absorbed by both photosystem I and photosystem II to provide chemical energy in the form of ATP and reducing power in the form of the electrons carried by NADPH. Takes place in the thylakoid

membranes of the chloroplast Light Dependent Reaction The Details: Photosystem II (PSII) Light enters and is trapped by Pigment-680 (P680) An electron from P680 is boosted to a it is passed to an electron acceptor molecule

where This electron passes down an (cytochromes) to forming ATP from ADP in a process called 36 Light Dependent Reaction The Details: Photosystem II (PSII) The lost electrons from P680 are replaced by electrons

produced by the lysis of water , which liberates as a product 37 Light Dependent Reaction The Details: Photosystem I (PSI) The electron arriving from

acceptor molecule As it is passed along it This energy pulls into the is boosted to another electron energy ( ) from the

38 Light hits An electron in this photosystem is excited and passed onto the smaller electron transport chain The excited electron from photosystem 1 passes down a chain of coenzymes (cytochromes) to make ATP Production - Chemiosmosis The energy from the electrons in photosystem II is used to produce ATP

indirectly The H+ ions in the thylakoid lumen are unable to escape except through special proteins called As the H+ ion moves though this complex they release energy The complex uses some of this energy to combine ADP and Pi making ATP This ATP then moves onto the light-independent reaction to make glucose Chemiosmosis Linking the movement of hydrogen ions to the production of ATP

Occurs in a series of steps: 1. To return to the stroma, the H+ ions must move through a structure known as ATP synthase which provides the only pathway for H+ ions to move down their concentration gradient 2.

ATP synthase uses the movement of the H+ ions to run a mechanism that bonds together ADP and free phosphates to form ATP html Your Task Case Study page 184 questions 1 and 2 optional Section Questions page 185 questions 1-4 somewhat optional Practice Questions page 187 #1-3 getting less optional

Practice Questions page 188 #4-6 not really a choice Practice Questions page 190 # 7-10 I wouldnt ignore these Practice Question page 191 # 11-14 Do or suffer the consequences Expect a Quiz next class 43

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