Absolute Monarchs in Europe - WH

Absolute Monarchs in Europe - WH

Introduction to Absolute Monarchs Essential Question: What aspects must be present for a ruler to be labeled an absolute monarch, and what events led to the creation of constitutional monarchies? Quick Introduction What is an ABSOLUTE MONARCH?

A king or queen has total power, seeks to control all aspects of society What gives the king his power? Divine Right belief that God gave him the right to rule Absolutism Dominates Europe Causes of Absolutism:

1. 2. 3. 4. Decline of feudalism Rise of cities Merchants support of monarchs Crises

Religious and territorial conflicts Monarchs tried to regulate by gaining more power ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE Louis XIV - The Most Powerful Ruler of France

I am the state Expanded the economy Over-turned the Edict of Nantes Persecuted the Protestants Pampered himself Lived in TOTAL luxury, had 500 servants, cooks, etc. who looked after his every desire.

Positives that Louis Brought Strengthened France in Art & Literature Strengthened French Military and influence in Europe Strengthened the French Colonies in the New World Negatives that Louis Brought

Constant Warfare Lots of debts High Taxes for the people Set the stage for the French Revolution Louis died in his bed in 1715. The French people celebrated when they heard the news. The Palace at Versailles

People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door. Instead, using the left pinkie finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted

permission to enter. As a result, many courtiers grew that fingernail longer than the others ABSOLUTISM IN ENGLAND While other nations turned to

absolutism in the 1500s and 1600s, Englands Parliament resisted the throne. Monarchs Defy Parliament A MONARCHY is a form of ABSOLUTISM The Monarchs (Kings and Queens) felt that they were above the law (Parliament)

Parliament = English version of US Congress Monarchs vs. Parliament Queen Elizabeth she had problems with the parliament regarding money James I he had problems

with the parliament regarding religion Charles I fired the Parliament! Charles I vs. Parliament Charles fired Parliament Then he needed money so here-hired them. Parliament says sign Petition of Right and you can have money

No false imprisonment No taxes w/o Parliaments consent No housing of soldiers in homes No martial (absolute) law in peace time Charles signed it then IGNORED it. Parliament withheld money He fired them again English Civil War Why? because the people were mad at Charles for firing the

Parliament Puritans Loyalists Supported Charles Called Cavilers Also called Royalists VS

Supported Parliament Called Roundheads Leader was Oliver Cromwell English Civil War Results Oliver Cromwells Roundheads defeated

Charles Put him on trial, sentenced him to death and beheaded him Changes in Power Oliver Cromwell:

Forms a strict military state After Cromwell dies, people wanted a king Charles II (Charles I son) took over

Restoration of England Glorious Revolution Charles II died with NO heir His brother James II took over (Catholic)

English Bill of Rights instated William and Mary come to power (Protestant) and develop a Constitutional Monarchy (limited monarchy) Summary Through the 1500s and 1600s absolutism became dominant through much of Europe Absolutist monarchs claimed they ruled by divine right England stood as a contrast to the trend of absolutism After English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution the

English Bill of Rights was passed establishing England as a limited monarchy

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