A changing approach to geodetic networks and standards
A changing approach to geodetic networks and standards MATT AMOS and DON GRANT Overview Historical - Based on method of observation
Current - Based on accuracy achieved Future NZ Geodetic Datum 1949
Limitations of NZGD1949 New technology - EDM, GPS, etc Public access to global datasets Earth Deformation
- Earthquakes Edgecumbe 1987 (M6.3) Limitations of NZGD1949 New technology - EDM, GPS, etc
Public access to global datasets Earth Deformation - 1855 Wellington earthquake magnitude 8.2 18m horizontal 2.5m vertical - Continuous deformation
5m / century between east and west of NZ Motion relative to geo-centre of Earth New Zealand Geodetic Datum 2000 GPS-based Geocentric Accommodates Earth deformation
Monitored by continuous GNSS observations NZGD2000 Zero Order Network NZGD2000 2nd 4th Order Networks
NZGD2000 5th Order Network Current network still not ideal Different and conflicting uses Different and conflicting characteristics - Density - Accuracy
- Accessibility - Mark construction - Site stability Purposes not clear What exactly do we need?
Proposed Future Geodetic Networks Networks defined by purpose (not by process) Accuracy of networks related to their purpose not how they are obtained Different mark characteristics for each network
Marks can be in multiple networks National Reference Frame Connection to the global frame One station for each tectonic plate Continuous GNSS observations
Absolute gravity connection Datum Monitoring Network Maintain accuracy of geodetic datum Monitor earth deformation Re-establish cadastre following major
deformation events Density related to deformation rate Stability of marks important Cadastral Control Network Geodetic marks to support cadastral surveys
Enable connection to the geodetic datum Enable orientation to the geodetic datum Provided where cadastral surveys are being done Intervisibility important Geospatial Network Alignment of geospatial datasets
Datum connection in areas of little cadastral activity - Wilderness areas & National Parks - Offshore Islands - Ross Dependency Marks visible to aerial applications
Next steps Standard being drafted by LINZ Regulatory Group Review by expert committee early 2008 Two month public consultation period Consideration of consultation feedback by committee Publication of standard late 2008 Networks implemented by LINZ Customer Services
Summary Existing geodetic networks based on observation technique rather than function New geodetic networks based on purpose Different networks for different purposes Draft standard for consultation in early 2008
1) Introduction - can begin with anecdotal, personal elements to explain choice of topic - identifies a research niche, then occupies it.(Typically: while a good deal of research has examined X, there have been few studies that have focussed on...
Samuel's Validates His Leadership vv. 1-5. Samuel heeded Israel's request for king. Samuel old and gray headed. He asks if any have witness against him. The people have nothing against Samuel. Samuel affirms Lord and king Saul as witnesses. Samuel's...
Devices. more than half. of information workers across 17 countries report using 3+ devices for work. Apps. one quarterof external app implementation spending will be on mobility, cloud, analytics & social, by 2016
Essays in Persuasion (Einp) 323-5. Keynes'sproblem is to overcome the limitations of 19th-century paleoliberalism and to tackle the problem of: ... It is in the General Theory that we see Keynes the analyst of the borderline between rationality and animal...
Arthropods Why So Successful? Why So Abundant? Why So Successful? Why So Abundant? Fact: There are more than 1 million different species of arthropod Fact: for every one human, there are 1 million arthropods on Earth Exoskeleton Strong Protective Flexible...
Billy is a boy in a small coal town, and his dad is a miner. He takes Billy into a boxing class. But Billy sees girls dancing ballet in toe shoes. Billy throws away boxing gloves and takes ballet lessons....
2 Social Studies credits (SS) plus. 10 credits of your choice (based on your career path) 5 credits at grade 12 level (600 or 800) Provincial Course Requirements for Graduation. Developing a Graduation Plan for Success in High School. ......
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!