2018 Meeting Interpretation of iron studies and high ferritins

2018 Meeting Interpretation of iron studies and high ferritins

D N A S K C O L I D L GO TH E T S I G O

L O T A M E HA ITIN, HIGH FERRITIN, FERRITIN LOW FERR JUST RIGHT , T IS G O L O

T A M E A TH N A T L U S N O C ( E E

D BY NICOLE PRID RIE) 8 /1 /1 8 1 , S L L A H K C LO L

O P , G IN N E V E E T A PLIG GP UPD OVERVIEW IRON REGULATION INTERPRETATION OF IRON STUDIES

HIGH FERRITIN: APPROACH TO INVESTIGATION IRON DISTRIBUTION Review on iron and its importance for human health. J Res Med Sci IRON REQUIREMENTS IRON REGULATION Clinical Chemistry Dec 2011, 57 (12) 1650- FACTORS INFLUENCING IRON

ABSORPTION BIOAVAILABILITY HIGH GASTRIC PH DISRUPTION OF INTESTINAL STRUCTURE INHIBITORS COMPETITORS FACILITATORS http://slideplayer.com/slide/ 5076841/ INTERPRETATION OF IRON STUDIES ANAEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE (AOCD) VS IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA (IDA)

MCV MCH Ferriti RCC (fl) (pg/ml n (ng/ x ) ml) 1012/ L / Iron deficienc y AoCD /

JRCPE; Adapted from/ Leach, M (2014) 44:36-41 IRON STUDIES FE (MOL/L) CIRCULATING IRON [NR:1032] TRANSFERRIN (G/L) TRANSPORTER PROTEIN [NR:2-4]

TRANSFERRIN SATURATION (%) - FE/TIBC NR= NORMAL RANGE FERRITIN (G/L) CELLULAR STORAGE PROTEIN [NR: 15-200 MENSTRUATING FEMALES; 15-300 MALES AND POSTMENOPAUSAL FEMALES] IRON STUDIES Disease Serum Iron Transferrin

Transferrin saturation Ferritin Iron deficiency AoCD

/ / Iron deficiency & AoCD (high normal)

/ CO-EXISTING AOCD AND IDA DIFFICULT TO DIAGNOSE HIGH NORMAL TRANSFERRIN (>3 G/L) LOWER THAN EXPECTED FERRITIN (IN CONTEXT OF INFLAMMATION) (100 G/L)

NB SERUM IRON IS LABILE AND DIFFICULT TO INTERPRET DIFFERENTIATING AOCD AND IDA CLINICAL HISTORY FBC IRON STORES RENAL FUNCTION INFLAMMATORY MARKERS TRIAL OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: RENAL PATIENTS British Journal of Haematology Volume 161, Issue 5, pages 639-648, 10 APR 2013 DOI: 10.1111/bjh.12311 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjh.12311/full#bjh12311-fig-0001 AOCD/IDA WHO TO REFER

IDA TO HAEMATOLOGY: PRE-MENOPAUSAL FEMALES WITHOUT GI SYMPTOMS WHO ARE INTOLERANT OF OR UNRESPONSIVE TO ORAL IRON SUPPLEMENTS TO GASTROENTEROLOGY FOR ENDOSCOPY: 1) POST-MENOPAUSAL FEMALES OR MALES > 50 YEARS WITH NO OBVIOUS CAUSES OF BLOOD LOSS; 2) PATIENTS WITH AOCD WHOSE HB HAS IMPROVED FOLLOWING A TRIAL OF ORAL IRON AOCD OPTIMISATION OF MANAGEMENT OF UNDERLYING CONDITION(S) IS GENERALLY SUFFICIENT AND NO SECONDARY CARE REFERRAL IS NECESSARY TO RELEVANT SPECIALTY: IF OPTIMISATION OF CHRONIC ILLNESS DIFFICULT IN PRIMARY CARE TO HAEMATOLOGY: 1) IF MANAGEMENT OF UNDERLYING CONDITION(S) OPTIMISED AND PATIENT SYMPTOMATIC WITH HB <100 G/L; 2) IF OTHER UNEXPLAINED BLOOD ABNORMALITIES PRESENT

HIGH FERRITIN: APPROACH TO INVESTIGATION HIGH FERRITIN - HISTORY CLINICAL HISTORY TESTING INDICATION INFECTION/INFLAMMATION/RECENT SURGERY MEDICATION - ? ORAL OR IV IRON ETHNICITY KNOWN HAEMOGLOBINOPATHY/CHRONIC HAEMOLYSIS LIVER DISEASE -ALD/VIRAL HEPATITIS/NAFLD TRANSFUSION HISTORY HIGH FERRITIN INVESTIGATION IRON STUDIES

TSAT >50%, CONSIDER HAEMOCHROMATOSIS & DO HFE GENE TESTING TSAT <50%, CONSIDER OTHER DIAGNOSES LFTS LDH, CALCIUM, ALBUMIN, URATE INFLAMMATORY MARKERS US ABD, IF RISK FACTORS FOR LIVER DISEASE (ALCOHOL INTAKE, OBESITY, DIABETES) UNDERSTANDING HFE GENE RESULTS HFE GENE TESTING WILL DIAGNOSE 95% OF PATIENTS WITH HEREDITARY HAEMOCHROMATOSIS HEREDITARY HAEMOCHROMATOSIS C282Y HOMOZYGOTE HIGHEST RISK OF IRON OVERLOAD C282Y/H63D COMPOUND HETEROZYGOTE INTERMEDIATE RISK OF IRON OVERLOAD

H63D HOMOZYGOTE LOW RISK OF IRON OVERLOAD NOT HEREDITARY HAEMOCHROMATOSIS C282Y HETEROZYGOTE H63D HETEROZYGOTE Goot et al (2012) Elevated serum ferritin: What should GPs know? AFP 41(12):945-949. HIGH FERRITIN WHO TO REFER TO HAEMATOLOGY:

CONFIRMED HAEMOCHROMATOSIS (C282Y HOMOZYGOTES AND C282Y/H63D COMPOUND HETEROZYGOTES) WITH NORMAL LFTS PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED FERRITIN AND T SAT > 50% AND NORMAL LFTS (PLEASE SEND HFE GENOTYPING AT POINT OF REFERRAL) UNEXPLAINED FERRITIN > 1000 G/L AND NORMAL LFTS TO GASTROENTEROLOGY/HEPATOLOGY CONFIRMED HAEMOCHROMATOSIS (C282Y HOMOZYGOTES AND C282Y/H63D COMPOUND HETEROZYGOTES) WITH ABNORMAL LFTS PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED FERRITIN AND T SAT > 50% AND ABNORMAL LFTS (PLEASE SEND HFE GENOTYPING AT POINT OF REFERRAL) UNEXPLAINED FERRITIN > 1000 G/L AND ABNORMAL LFTS

REFERENCES ADAMS & BARTON (2005) A DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO HYPERFERRITINEMIA WITH A NONELEVATED TRANSFERRIN SATURATION J HEPATOL 55(2):453-8. CULLIS (2013) ANAEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE CLINICAL MEDICINE 13(2):193-6. GODDARD ET AL (2011) GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA GUT 60:1309-1316. GOOT ET AL (2012) ELEVATED SERUM FERRITIN: WHAT SHOULD GPS KNOW? AFP 41(12):945-949. LEACH (2014) INTERPRETATION OF THE FULL BLOOD COUNT IN SYSTEMIC DISEASE A GUIDE FOR THE PHYSICIAN JRCPE 44:36-41. MELBOURNE HAEMATOLOGY (2013) A GUIDE TO INTERPRETATION OF IRON STUDIES HTTP://WWW.MELBOURNEHAEMATOLOGY.COM.AU/PDFS/GUIDELINES/MELBOURNE-HAEMATOLOGY-G UIDELINES-IRON-STUDIES.PDF [ACCESSED 17/1/18]. QUESTIONS?

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